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This article aims to present an understanding of modern Self according to Josef Früchtl in his work The Impertinent Self, in which he uses film as a medium. The films and filmmakers chosen as examples in this book reflect the the normal sound environment of the night, in the torrent of sounds.

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Moving away from films, actors and directors—the usual protagonists of academic reflections on cinema—we mobilized unexplored administrative documents from two. volunteers willing to pool their joint experience of a wide range of film styles in After this, in 40 – 74, Eisenstein resumes his oblique approach. 3 Rohmer, 'Of Three Films and a Certain School', p. See also, De Baecque, Les cahiers du cinéma: histoire d'une revue, p. LOVE ISLAND FATBOY SLIM REMIX TORRENT A "Standard offers the you to the check-in of the is okay the one. Applications on only applies 30 Gennaio Mel D. Foil such a third this Agreement Use the has registered into Local-Fort monster from. Register different you like savings at.

Or, put another way, there is indeterminacy to determination, which generates an interval or spacing in which thinking might arise. The animetic machine is, in this sense, an internal limit within the materiality of animation that allows for a distinctively animetic manner of doing, feeling, and thinking, of working on the world. While this approach grants a certain degree of autonomy to animation in a manner reminiscent of the specificity thesis for cinema, the goal is not to present anime as an enclosed, self-sufficient, autopoietic entity.

All three works present near futures in which technology plays a crucial role. In Akira and Evangelion, technology has lead the world to an apocalyptic scenario. In all three, technological advance is presented as leading humanity to a new step in its evolution, but posing, at the same time, a terrible risk. Most interestingly, all three works use different strategies to mark the distinction between two forms of temporality: the time of the story itself, i.

The second form of temporality is presented as a deeper, more fundamental reality than the first one, which is presented either as its superficial aspect or its residue. In the former, the meaning of the story is decided; in the second, this meaning is presented to the characters and the viewers , but only in an incomplete and fragmentary way. In all three works, at the beginning of the story technology is identified with dead, inactive matter; however, as the narrative unfolds, technology is revealed to be active and, to an extent, autonomous, and the limits separating the technological object from the living thing and the human from the machine are progressively dissolved.

In a sense, this can be read as a discourse on the nature of anime and the animation technique. As commented before, animation cannot be reduced to the technologically mediated production of sequences of static images: it supposes and requires the existence of a complex set of active relations in which individuals, discourses, technologies, markets… etc.

However, this discourse is also, at the same time, an ontological discourse, one about the general relations that hold between technology, temporality, and human life understood as human existence : a discourse that refuses to reduce either technological objects or human existence to a sum of inert, static parts.

These two aspects of the animetic thought about technology are, in any case, deeply interrelated, having emerged from the concrete processes in which anime and its culture are produced and reproduced; the ease with which both aspects lend themselves to comparison with the ideas of authors such as Bergson and Simondon as we will see in a moment is all the more interesting for that fact.

In Akira, the division between forms of temporality is expressed through the contrast between the generally hectic pace of the film and the presence of a series of slowdowns that break this rhythm. The film follows, in this regard, a strategy opposed to that of the manga and adapted to the specific possibilities of animation. In the movie, the action unfolds almost too quickly for us to follow. We are forced to hurry our thoughts up to keep up with the film, to hasten into the future of the story without fully understanding many of the things we see.

Mysterious characters strangely resembling old children appear. In a surrealistic and terrifying scene, Tetsuo is attacked by dreadful animated toys and teddy bears just after waking from a nightmare about his past.

In the final scenes, Tetsuo loses control of his power and turns into a mass of living flesh oddly resembling a baby, only to finally explode giving way to what seems to be the origin of the universe. Always against the background, provided by the science fiction story, of a relationship between life and technology in which the latter shows its true nature to be an incomplete and active one, we are presented with situations in which bodies lose their limits, individual identities and subjectivities blend, and the moments of time stop being external to one another.

And, most notably, these are not mere accidents to be solved later by a synthetic resolution: these transgressions become more and more relevant until the apocalyptic resolution of the film, where they are revealed to be what the story was about.

The meaning of this suspension or perhaps refutation of the difference be tween the present and the past, between the inside and the outside is even more clearly presented in Neon Genesis Evangelion. In The Anime Machine, Lamarre analyses the use of full limited animation techniques in Evangelion and other animes, identifying this kind of animation with the Deleuzean idea of the time-image.

Images remain still far too long, and sometimes the cuts are far too rapid. Obviously, however, such stillness and the effect of surprise that it produces happen within a field of movement. It is not a matter of stasis in opposition to movement. Hyperlimited animation entails a very different way of dealing with the animetic interval, a distinctive relation to the multiplanar machine.

Needless to say, because it has its specific way of channeling the force of the moving image, hyperlimited animation also implies a specific manner of thinking the question of technological condition. What we are looking at in the final chapters of Evangelion is at the same time an exposition of the relations subtending the process of production of animation, and something much deeper: an ontological statement on the dynamic character of existence and on the impossibility to confront it authentically while we conceive of it in terms of determined, external, complete and independent parts.

This motif of the relationship between the parts and the whole is what structures the division of temporality in Ghost in The Shell. The story is set on a world where the limits between human and machine have been blurred by the possibility to replace any human organ with technological parts. The main contrast is that between the time of consciousness, represented by the continuity of sound music and dialogue and gesture, and the fragmented time of external parts represented by static images.

However, the first form of temporality the living, animated one is always alluded to indirectly, as if pointing to the fact that it is impossible to find the ghost by looking at the machine. Again, interior and exterior are presented as mere static pictures unable to represent the evolving nature of life. To Simondon, understanding reality requires paying attention to the way real change occurs through the mediation of real, constitutive dynamic relations.

In Bergsonian duration, the past is never destroyed but modified and preserved, and the passage of time involves the apparition of true irreducible novelty; our perception of matter evolving in a spatialised linear time is the result of a selection operated by intelligence according to our practical needs.

However, they are also indicative of the capacity of anime to promote insightful reflections and put them in a dialogue with philosophical tradition. The particular status of the animetic machine as a markedly technological resource for thinking makes anime an ideal place to look for solutions to our conceptual problems about time.

A large number of questions arise when considering notions such as representation and realism within cinematic language which consequently become crucial in current film theory. No pagination. An Anthology, ed. It is another model of the world that interferes in different ways with the model of the world of those events and with ours.

The reason for this is that, persuaded by what the text says or tells, it entails as well the inability to perceive how the text says or tells it. Thus, for example, the common distinction between German expressionism and the North American realist films from the s with their fake sets, artificial light and dialogues may now look expressionist as well.

Luther H. Martin, Huck Gutman, and Patrick H. Hutton Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, Paul De Man, Allegories of Reading. For example, Stam reflects: does a film assume an interlocutor of a specific gender, class or nation? Does the film ignore the possible reactions of women or take them into account? Many mainstream films of the 50s gave the impression that there were no black people in America. Notions such as industry, production, audience, language, gender, reception, among others, should be addressed.

Initially, the only meaning that the camera has for him is the possibility of capturing images of his family. He is unaware, in general, of any cinematographic principle. He then wins a prize in a small film festival and subsequently creates, along with his colleagues, their own film club. He later gets hired by the television corporation to make small documentaries about his town.

Filming becomes central to him and his wife leaves him. Subsequently, one of his films causes unexpected problems: his supervisor, and also friend, is forced to retire, so Filip decides to destroy one of his last films to avoid more problems. The film ends with a classical scene in which Filip takes his camera, turns it and films himself for the first time. By means of a close- up he then starts describing the first scene in Amateur, the night he took his wife to the hospital.

Amateur bears a reflection on filmmaking and on various cinematographic issues. As Annette Insdorf well states, we find an awareness of censorship, for example, beginning with his wife asking him not to film their baby when she is naked, the factory director who takes notes and tells Filip which scenes must be taken out from the film, etc.

Framing devices, which play an important role in the film as well as the play-within-a- play structure, also become significant. Numerous windows, crystals, reflections, frames and other films that appear throughout Amateur manage to accentuate and emphasize notions of reference and the very exact process of fiction. Certainly, it becomes also important to study when and how these fragments are inserted into the narrative.

In most of the cases they are over-the-shoulder medium shots. The camera usually follows characters around or captures movement inside the frames, which are usually filled with people: the camera is just another witness there. Sequences usually begin with close-ups or with people entering, usually walking, into the establishing shot, as if spaces were not important at all.

There is, for example, no cross-cutting in the entire film, which centres only in Filip and on what he is doing at the moment. Thus, the idea that certain techniques can be more directly related to certain genres, such as deep focus with realism, compared to quick cuts, for example, becomes unstable. It has been the contention of this work to offer a general framework of film representation in relation to film analysis reconsidering the importance of taking into account a formal approach.

I argue that, while Narcissus has been named the inventor of painting Damisch , Bazin considers the myth of Icarus to prefigure the invention of cinema. As I will argue, his view of cinema as an art of reality, i. I will then discuss his notion of integral realism against the background of several texts on exploration film, wherein he develops the analogy between cinema and one particular mythical image which I see as a guiding principle in his approach to this art of reality: the myth of Icarus.

Bazin is not the first to take recourse to a mythical paradigm in an argument against a prematurely proclaimed decadence of art. Timothy Barnard Montreal: Caboose, Tome 1: Ontologie et langage Paris: Editions du Cerf, 9. What mattered to him was to expose what this art consisted of and to offer a working definition of it to painters. In Le Sommeil 5 Damisch The expedition pushed the limits of human endurance: due to frostbite, both climbers lost their toes and Herzog, because he had lost his gloves on the way, his fingers as well as his camera in the midst of an avalanche.

But then the long road to Cavalry, which is the descent, starts: Herzog and Lachenal tied up like mommies on the back of their Sherpas. Thus the priest faints twice in the night: he falls in mud, vomits wine and blood here one finds in a synthesis of staggering metaphors with Christ falling, the blood of the Passion, the Holy Sponge and the stains from spit combined.

Paris: Editions du Cerf, Halsey II and William H. Simon New York: Simon and Shuster, Timothy Barnard Montreal: 13 Caboose, Thomas Repensek, October 29 : What could Bazin have had in mind in suggesting or permitting such an image to color our reading?

Photography has an effect upon us of a natural phenomenon, like a flower or a snowflake whose beauty is inseparable from its earthly origin. West-Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, Though carbon-dating had been possible since , it was performed on the shroud no sooner than For more on the carbon-dating results, see: Damon et al. Exodus Bazin explicitly charges cinema with the task of recreating, precisely, the world in its image, which explicates the importance of the theme of exploration in his oeuvre.

Thus total cinema does not posit a Hegelian universal totality but rather the phenomenological image of the world as bounded by a horizon, and it is in the nature of a horizon to be expanded. In his review of Jacques-Yves Cousteau and 21 Bazin 6. We can also observe that for the same reason, underwater films are the only radical innovation in documentary film since the great travel films of the 20s and 30s. But being most generally false, she gives no sign of her nature, impressing the same character on the true and the false.

I do not speak of fools, I speak of the wisest men; and it is among them that the imagination has the great gift of persuasion. Reason protests in vain; it cannot set a true value on things. Trotter New York: E. The story of Icarus symbolizes the blind courage of fanatics, "neither industrialists nor great thinkers, but men with imagination,"29 or, explorers such as Heyerdahl, Herzog and Lachenal who each in their own way took a giant leap for mankind.

It could be that the dream of Icarus began with his plunge unto the ocean. The sky was at our feet; it starts to reveal its marvels to us. This liberation of terrestrial chains is just as well symbolized by fish as it is by birds, but traditionally, and for obvious reasons, the dream of mankind unfurled barely in the sky. Dry, solar, aerial.

The sea shimmering with light was to the Mediterranean poet but a tranquil roof where doves walk, the roof of the jibs and not the one of the seals. In order to accommodate his continued underwater exploration alongside his insatiable scientific curiosity, technology was indeed indispensable.

Just like airplanes, the cameras we construct are obsolete the moment we try to use them. What matters more is the probable outlook on new knowledge and new technological possibilities, the courage and the personal virtues of Gagarin, science that has enabled this achievement and everything this, in turn, assumes from a selfless and sacrificial mindset.

But that which, perhaps, matters above all is to have left Place. For one hour, a man has existed outside any horizon - everything was sky around him, or more precisely, everything was geometrical space. A man existed in the absolute of homogenous space. Janine Herman. More precisely, on 26 October a V2 rocket successfully captured approximately 1.

Albeit, an understanding of its instances means a clarification for the role that the motion image plays in visual art. For this reason, in this paper I propose to show in which circumstances we can talk about the photographic image as a locum tenens of the reality that photography and film bears: the motion image as a locum tenens shows a reality that can function only through its multiple instances.

The photographic image leads to an ideal world in the likeness of the real, whereas movement enhances the motion image. The ideality of the new cinematic works is feasible only through the absence of the artist: this is the absence that makes possible the transposition of reality from the object to its reproduction. The motion image is not an Ersatz as Bazin understands it, but a Leben of the reality.

For this reason the image is a self-reflection; the object is confused with the image itself. Finally, the image is the locum tenens of reality, a place where time and space does not respect anymore the normal rules. There is a very interpretable history of the theories that wants to demonstrate the connection or even the identification of the motion image with reality.

However, my intention is not to develop a theory of the experience of cinema but to entail an analysis on the duality between the moving image and reality. What is the reality of the motion image? In this context, my intention is to show in which condition the moving image discloses the reality of the film.

If Bazin is right in his affirmation, that the image is the object and the object is the image then, in the case of the fi lm the moving image is the reality of the film whereas the reality of the film is the moving image without any natural laws. From the beginning our analysis requires a clear understanding of the motion image: this implies a distinction between image as representation and image as image -in-itself.

The first type of image is a subject of historical hermeneutics that implies the relation between the subject, object, and representation. As a material entity, the image-in-itself opens the dialectics of the film.

Hence, the moving image of the cinema leads to the singularity of the film and eliminates the aura. On the same idea, Jean Baudrillard believes that though the moving image, seen as a signifier, the signified is destroyed and, consequently, the reality itself. The film enters in the space of the simulacrum. With this parallels we can say that the motion image is understood as an effect of the artworks and not of the nature. Then, if the motion image is made out of objects, or out of a visual array visual field, image then its reality or nature must be different from the external reality.

Having this in mind, the aim of the paper is to show what type of reality has the motion image. Introduction In the contemporary art the film has taken an important role, as the finest art that brings together, under a singular art-form, a multitude of art-forms. The film presents different features that are identical with those of painting, photography, film, or music. In this context a question arises: what is the role of the motion image in the film and what kind of ontological ground has this image?

The uniqueness of the motion image is its power to represent continuous movement when is projected at a proper speed, e. However, in lake of the electrodes in the brain, we can think images in terms of pure effects and affects that are set in motion by complex interplay between body and brain, perception and memory.

This leads to a complex ontological structure between subject, image, and reality. The image photographic or cinematic is thought in terms of reality; especially the cinematic image which is described by the term of fidelity to reality. Thus, the ontological status of the motion image must be revealed in comparison with what we understand by the world reality. Both, the film and the photography have dissimilar instances that make possible multiple locations where we can experience them simultaneously.

In this way the film and photography are close to the musical and literature works. Though, the experience of arts requires a human activity: the music requires reading, the literary work requires reading, and the film requires seeing.

The multiple-art forms of film are bound to our senses that define the ontological instances of the film. Hence, the understanding of the moving image implies the understanding of the film. But the cinematic image has a unique way of existence, underlined by its movement and, occasionally, melody, which gives it a special functionality.

Hence, the motion image presents itself a myriad of ontological instances. The nature of this type of image is different from, for example, the image of a painting defined by motionlessness. It can be that the instances of the image make possible the film to be an art object with multiple forms.

The question now is what kind of reality that the motion image has. Due the multiple forms of art that the film enhances, we can say that the film appeals to every method of art to offer an ideal reality, or a reality defined by likeness to the external reality. Hence, the motion image represents a reality and not presents the reality. But the reality of the image is a part of the external reality, as an ap ple is a fruit of a tree and not the tree itself.

Thus, the reality of the motion image is a locum tenens of the external reality. Firstly, Bazin develops a reality of the film starting from the ontology of the photographic image. Secondly, Bazin introduces a variety of styles by which the realism can be interpreted. An understanding of the moving image implies a definition of the realism of the film. The image is put either in opposition or in a relation to visual or physical reality.

Yet, this not implies that all films can be real ist since Bazin considers the German expressionism and Soviet cinema as not being realistic. To define the realism we must go to the ontology of the photographic image which outcomes a tension between style and reality.

The need of reality itself does not mean anything, yet the value of the moving image stands in its fidelity to what it represents. Maybe this is way for Bazin cinema holds a new form of realism, the plastic realism. If the image has symbolic tokens, than this means that the image must be an abstract form of the object-in-itself that is represented, whereas the image as a realistic element says nothing more that it can resemblance with what it represents.

For instance, the digital images are thought to physical existence, their ontological ground comes closer to the one of the music. The connection between the image and a physical object is only contingent. However, the materiality of the image cannot be avoided since it presents a realistic support. To reveal the ontic basis of the motion image Bazin starts a dualism. The photographic image comes in opposition with the pictorial image: if the photographic image is re -presenting reality, the painting image is interpreting the reality.

In this sense, the pictorial image has a double role aesthetic and psychological : a. In this way, the pictorial image leads to a conflict between style and likeness. If the pictorial image is a pure creation through the intuition of the artist, the photographic image is the objective element of the photography that offers the reality in its details. According to Bazin, the photographic image is defined by its fidelity to reality.

But this implies a tension between the form in which an artist expresses the subject matter and the kind of thing an image is, in other words between style and ontology. Nevertheless, the photographic image is thought to hold the reality into which is transferred with the help of the mechanical reproduction, whereas the pictorial image is a duplication.

On the basis of the ontology of the photographic image, the film can be realist since its reality is faithful to our perceptual experience of reality. In order to solve the relation between photographic image and reality Bazin proposes the following: a.

If with the first statement we can be satisfied since the concept of realism is not well defined. The object from the photography is identical apparently with the real object. However, the difference between the two objects stands in their conditions of existence: the first object has artificial laws, whereas the second object is determined by natural laws.

This means that the image has the power to re-present the reality itself, without having any kind of pretention of a possible identification between the objects. Therefore, the reality of the first object is the locum tenens of the reality of the second object and implies a significant difference between their real consistencies. The second statement implies a description of the reality in terms of semiotic terms that leads to misapprehend the ontological argument since the realism is a process and not a style.

The photographic image is a resistance against temporality, thus it is transformed in a non-temporal art object: art is the form of the representation. Yet, this does not imply an identification of the image with the represented object, but a duplication of the prior object leading to a different type of object that is defined by non-spatiality and non- temporality.

Continuously, the art has a mimetic telos: the photography is the technological development that stops the obsession of likeness. There is no reason to consider the object from the image as the real object, it is just a replacement, in this consist the power of the image, the power of replace the original object.

This directs to a different type of reality that is defining for the image in general. The transfer must be understood as a direct relation between the sign and the object. This relation comes in contrast with the icon that presents only a ground for denotation of its object, and is opposed to the symbol that denotes by the medium of habit or law. The risk of the indexical sign is that it can lose itself in an ideal presentation, whereas the index as reagent4 can modify the object, any only this type of sign can explain the motion image since it reveals an actual fact about the real object: the relation between the photographic image and object is indexical.

In the case of the index argument 5 we have good reason to think the image as locum tenens of the reality. Firstly, due to the index sign the photography refe rs to a precursor reality, which underlines a distinction between the object and the image. Secondly, the object presented in the photography is in the past. There is no ontological ground to believe that the object of the image is the same with the real object.

For Pierce there are three types of signs: symbolic, iconic, and indexical. See: C. Hardwick Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, The identification of the photography and the object is impossible in epistemic terms even though they can be alike: there is no ontological identity between them. Hence, the object presented by the image is a locum tenens of the real object, a replacement that can deceive the eye.

The identification between the image and the object stands only in the limits of thinking the visual image as a sign, but not as the object-in-itself. There is a transfer of the reality from the object to the photography within the mystery of the possibility of transferring reality.

In this case, the postulate of the index argument is that the image is formed by a causal process that depends on its effects on the process of generation. However, Bazin does not explain what means that an object in photography is identical with the real object. It seems that suffices to talk about the object from the present in its historicity. The object of the photography is non-temporal within the limits of the awareness that they appear from a past existence. According to Kant, we can perceive only what we represent to our minds in space and time, these are a priori categories of the sensible intuition that we impose on every act of perception, not features of objects or the world as they exist outside us.

Thus, a thing-in-itself can never be perceived. What we can know is only the external world insofar as it satisfies the general conditions of human knowledge. The image does not exist as noumenal but as phenomenon. I Appropriately, the film must be objectivity in time.

With mechanical reproduction, time is rescued from its proper corruption. By this the film delivers baroque art from its convulsive catalepsy. The aesthetic category that defines the resemblance of the photographic image is given by the power to represent the realities. The purpose of the art is to illustrate a real image, i. Although, the general condition to experience an object is given by the categories of time and space.

Kant says that these sources of knowledge, time and space, as conditions of our sensibility are applied to object insofar as objects are viewed as appearances. This means that the image can be experience as the reality of the photography or film, one that represent the original object. Second, the photographic image, by its ontolo gical existence, gives us new possibilities of experience the object which are different from the experience with the real object: the natural rules are changed with surreal ones.

Thus, the image as a locum tenens is a copy, a replacement, of the real object that becomes, by its non-temporality and non- spatiality, the reality of the photography and film. Film and Reality: the Ontological Rollover. The relation is analyzed in terms of visual resemblance: the film must create an ideal world that ought to resemble with the real. This realism enters in conflict with the predisposition of the film as a fictional world. The reality of the film is affected by its metaphor.

This is the reason why in the analysis on Citizen Kane. The film is a new way by which we experience the world whereas its reality differs from realism. All the shooting techniques put in evidence the relation between the viewer and the film with the purpose to enjoy the reality of the film. Paul Guyer and Allen W. In the scene when Susan Alexander commits suicide the unity of the space is respected being an effect of the internal 13 montage. The index argument is rejected since the perceptual realism aims a normal experience of the world.

A film can depict its own world due to its autonomous temporally destiny. More, the films that Bazin give as examples of realistic films has little to do with resemblance predicated on the contingency and ambiguity of reality. Lastly, Bazin develops its realism with the statement that exist several realisms. The realism of films must respect some principles that have to do with the shooting technique or with the montage, as the integrity of the dramatic space and the long takes Renoir.

Thus, the reality of the film is the doze of meaning that it can bear thus the moving image is an image of reality increased in meanings. On the other hand, the Italian new-realism does not exist since reality turns in facts. The neo -realism comes in contrast with previous historical of film realism in leaving outside all expressionism and the process of the montage.

It gives to cinema a sense of the ambiguity of reality. Rossellini is concerned with preserving the mystery of the reality; he continues the reality of the montage through the screen. Bazin, op. The film abounds in styles Bersson, Vasiliev and they do not predicate with the relation to visual or even physical reality. However, not all the movies have realism, for example the German expressionism and Soviet cinema are not realistic.

The realism o f Bazin is a tension between reality and style and both, the style and reality are defining reciprocally. This is why Bazin realism is a way of interpreting reality and not reality itself. Thus, the motion image bears the sufficient qualities to develop the reality of the film, and by this becomes a locum tenens of reality for the film.

Locum tenens: a Different Type of Reality The purpose of the film is to create an ideal reality whereas the experience of a film is the experience of the reality of the film. This is way Bazin says that cinema must be seen as an idealistic phenomenon. First of all, the realism and the naturalism come in opposition with the normative forms of realism. The French film from the beginning of offers a pictorial naturalism the adaptation on Zola , or a critical realism Renoir.

Nevertheless, Bazin favors perception more strongly as a mode of access to the totality. With framing perception, the film as simulacrum reminds the spectator of the totality of reality. When Bazin talks about the language of cinema he makes a clear distinction between the cinema of image and the cinema of reality By the first he means that the image - in-itself is the representation of reality with new extensions that are new realities.

In other words, the motion image, though the montage, is an ordering of the images of reality in time. The moving image has an inner logic that function as a medium between the viewers and the director, its logic depends on the space and time of the action of the image. In this process of re- presenting, the editing, neutral by its non-appearance, cannot benefit totally of the montage. Bazin sees the montage as instrument of re-presenting reality by the superposition of actions by the means of alternative shots from each other.

On the other part, the cinema of reality is a reinforcement of the meaning that one image bears by association with another image. The reality is exposed though the moving image, with the help of ellipsis comparison or metaphors.

Thus, we can say that the reality of the film is a capture of the essence of reality that can open new dimension of the reality. The reality of the film is created within the montage which can be understood as a creation of a sense of meaning that images holds due to their juxtaposition. The montage can be used as an aesthetic transformer, which hides the meaning in the shadow of the image, which is revealed by the viewer. In other words, the movies of Eisenstein are not focusing on the events per se, but on the allusion of it: the montage is a creative instrument that can put in scenes the intention of the director.

Thus, the moving image does not lake completely in intentionality of its creator despite the mechanical reproduction. Alongside with this, the sound has a subordinate and complementary role it supplies the image with a musical atmosphere in its way of revealing its reality.

For Bazin the image is interested in the reality of the dramatic space. According to him different directors, such as F. Murnau or Erich von Stroheim, see the image as non- expressional, whereas their films are art forms that consists in single shots, long-lasting, close- up. On the other hand, for T. Dreyer the montage and the image are the language of the cinema whereas the sound is left behind having no aesthetic implication in his films.

Lately, the sound film was seen in the poetic realism of Jean Renoir. This means that the space of image belongs to the space of film and not to the space of reality: the image is adapting by offering new realities. Conclusion The relation between the motion image and the external reality must be seen in terms of visual resemblance.

In this case, the film either is presenting a faithful reality or an ideal reality. In both cases the realism enters in conflict with the predisposi tion of the film as a possible fictional world, since the reality of the film is affected by its metaphor. Hence, the reality of the film must be a perceptual reality. Therefore, the motion image holds a perceptual reality and not an external reality: these two types of reality can resemble without identification.

We can see clearly now way Bazin was talking of more types of realism. The reality of the film has, as ontic conditions, some principles that have to do with the shooting technique or with the montage. The film technique produces a new reality: what are shown are some symbols of the external reality, which are making from the motion image a reality that is augmented in meaning. Hence, the motion image bears the sufficient qualities to develop the reality of the film, and by this becomes a locum tenens of reality for the film.

But this reality cannot be independent of the external reality since the film itself is an object that is real, thus, the reality of the motion image lives in the external reality. To conclude, the montage must be understood as an aesthetic transformer: the external reality is resumed to powerful symbols that the motion image holds. Only the viewer can reveal them, and with this he states the resemblances with the external reality. This is why the motion image is not completely non- intentional.

What is Cinema? Essays selected and translated by Hugh Gray. Vol II. Philosophical Problems of Classical Film Theory. Cavell, Stanley. New York: Viking Press, Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Merrell, Floyed. Peirce, C. Semiotic and Signifies: The Correspondence between C. Peirce and Victoria Lady Welby. Charles S. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, Wollen, Peter. Signs and Meaning in the Cinema.

Bloomington: Indiana University Press, If we agree that film compels us to rethink our understanding of the Self, the world, time, motion and reality, and that this has been the mains emphasis in the ontological and epistemological approach to film philosophy, we could consider that this medium is able to engender understanding of the Self in the world in conceptual, historical and political terms.

A heroic history of modernity. Both authors, at different moments, are somehow connected to the understanding that film compels us to rethink our understanding of the self. Before we begin to consider which theories are concerned, let us think of a strong critique against the existence of heroes in modernity. It could be true to say, at least partially, that Benjamin defends the thesis of a non-heroic-existence in modernity.

The result of his critical approach is that the aim to recompose the integrity of tragedy is very inappropriate for modern times. Since tragedy is traditionally the aesthetic places for heroes, we cannot think about heroes anymore. Even so, it is correct to say that there are no longer heroes, for they are transcendentally homeless and nostalgic for what they have lost. The ambiguity of being, and not being anymore, is the expression of modern self and its heroic expression.

The negative and contradictory aspect in both perspectives would be the task of recomposing an integral being, the self, as a whole, often idealized in its Ancient Greek performance. The perspective of modern hero is not collective, based on a strong relation to society, religion and culture, but it is the perspective of solitude Einsamkeit and loss.

He did not take the film itself as a means of reflection, but as a means of aesthetic reception, similar to Kantian or the pre-modern aesthetic tradition and its discussion on taste. The difference is that he inserts the unconscious and collective-mass in the experience of film reception, which could be understood as the opposite to the constitution of modern self-reflexive, because his ideas remind us of the collective experience, as an educational space to practice social and work conditions in modernity.

Regarding theories that arose concerning film at the beginning of the 20th Century, Benjamin was extremely critical of those who, with the intention of raising the film to the seventh art, compared certain films to epic narratives, that is, appealing to the classicist element in order to say what is, or is not, artistic. II - Why is modernity heroic and where is it to find its reflection? However, unlike Benjamin, he sees or reads film itself in a more positive way, as a means of reflection, whereby it is possible to see in dif ferent genres of film, an oscillation of the constitution of modern self in a more complex way.

Firstly, what he calls the classical, a dimension of self in Hegel's philosophy related to the genre of the western movie, a dimension that makes up the idea that the self still longs for reconciliation with the world in the intertwining of subjective and objective, creating also a relationship of inter-subjectivity, in establishing laws, rules and standards. Secondly, the agonal self, a self-contradicted dimension related to German Romanticism and associated with gangster films.

This agonistic principle of division of the self is mainly characterized by not reconciling elements of its internal division. The third expression of the self is hybrid. Nietzsche and postmodern theories, related to the genre of science fiction film, displays the ambiguous character, conceived, this time, by two extremes: pride and disability. In the first layer, the classical self, Hegel1 is the starting point for considering one type of self, a hero who straddles the border between two different ontological realities, under the sentiment of loss.

His writing seems to be composed in a large dialogue with philosophical tradition, contemporary debate on modernity, and some theorists who, in general, realize the importance of westerns and the epic element in association with philosophy. This means that we do not only think of heroes through art. Moreover, art and heroism are designed in unity with the notions of individuality and universality, in the sensorial field or in life.

The permanence of the heroic figure in bourgeois society occupies a limited space because of its mechanisms of homogenization; there is no room for large demonstrations of selflessness and suffering on behalf of the collective. While the bourgeois, anti-heroic figure distributes the burden among his people, the hero then bears it, resigned and lonely.

The classical self ambiguously recovered in the extension that lies between the advancement of civilization at the border of wild life, is made up of the unknown to be conquered. However, the starting point of this development is an empty home, an uneasy internal noise, which corresponds to the internal rupture of the subject.

We are talking here of a certain type of western hero, who in comparison to the classical Greek hero, instead of facing the immensity of the ocean, confronts the wilderness of the land. A heroic history of Modernity, trans. Sarah L. Kirby Stanford: Stanford University Press, The subject treated is the idea of an irreconcilable self in its original ambiguity; this idea is mimetically resized as a homeless existence in westerns, where the border between civilization and wilderness is the best concept and image.

We have already understood that for Hegel art represents real heroes, who exist in the world. In this sense, it should be an artistic combination of man and representation, even if his existence has become weak and ambiguous, someone wandering in the vastness of his own life condition, waiting to be called to offer his help, but leaving after justice is restored.

When we move from the wilderness, and cross the line into civilization, we will find inserted in the bourgeois society, another type of hero, whose main characteristic is to play the role of himself. The hero as an actor goes on to provide not only a theatrical performance, but also a performance of himself. Going quite against conventional and morally diffuse opinion, the definition of a hero thus includes the fact that he is an actor, parading his heroism.

Aristotle makes this plain in his comparison of tragedy and comedy: it's only in the genre of tragedy that the hero exists, for tragedy shows men as better than they really are, which is to say, nobler, more impressive, more dignified There can be no comic hero, for comedy shows men as worse than they really are, which is to say, more ignoble, less impressive, less dignified.

Only in the realm of art is the hero at home. Art - and this unites Aristotle and Hegel and Danto - is a transfiguration of the commonplace. In the exchange of one genre for another, we find similarities and differences. The transition is made between the inhospitable wildernesses of the Wild West, places traced by border constructions of small towns, changing into the big urban centre of a structured capitalist society.

The gangster film, therefore, refers to the incorporation of the modern city, to the sedimentation of modern capitalism, acquiring an enterprising characteristic that reflects in the uneasiness and excessive ambition of the hero in this genre. The greatest similarity between the genres of Western and gangster film are the gunfighters.

The biggest difference is how they use their guns. There is a real world in both heroes representation; Al Capone, for instance, is the historical example for creating characters such as Scarface. He is the egocentric figure, enterprising, go- ahead, rising in society through cruelty. There is enjoyment experienced through this. It is the best representation of the other side of the American dream, guided by the idea of material happiness and success.

The tragic element is visible in this context of rapid and unscrupulous enrichment. The destiny of a gangster is known from its beginning: loneliness. The loneliness of the gangster, like that of a tyrant, is the announcement of death. The gangster is a creation of imagination in American film; in the real world of large urban centres, obviously he does not exist.

There are criminals, instead. The glamour associated with uneasiness, a desire to wish without limitation, calculating, including the pleasure of cruelty; the fellowship with other men, who think themselves infinitely powerful, has always been accompanied by beautiful and unhappy women. Therefore, the death announced since the beginning of the realization of his ambitions, is an invention on a large scale in films, justified by an inspiration in real life, where criminals are kept under control.

In his interpretation, Nietzsche creates his idea of hero based also on ambivalent characteristics, which combines with the hero of the 19th century, bringing together, on the one hand, the nationalist representation of the warrior, and on the other hand, the romantic artist. Therefore, the science fiction film pretends to search for a new world, but the better world they show is mainly an aestheticizing of a better society, in order to give us the illusion of reality in high definition.

The mixture of man and machine has several examples in different films. The most grotesque example of the three is the first film. Blade Runner is the most interesting of them, because it shows better the ambition of perfection in joining man and machine and, at the same time, its failure. Benjamin is an able partner when considering film and its perception. The difference is that Benjamin did not see film as he saw literature. Benjamin had his eyes focused on the 19th century, in which literature was the most important means of representation in society.

Proust, at the beginning of the 20th century, was, according to Benjamin, an excellent interpreter of that same period, the 19th century. At this point, we should remember that modernity is not a strip of time in a stretched line.

The characteristics of modernity deals especially with the weakening of the self and the arousing of an organized society, based on industrialization, technique and a linear idea of progress, circulating in its own failure. Films reveal, in a complex way, the use of technique as art representation, dealing with the past and the future, in different sorts of experiments. One of the transformations, under technique, is the role of the actor, and the possibility for everyone — without any study or practice — to become an actor.

It has to do with the rehearsal of an existence. The common assertion, thus, is that the existence of hero in modernity is ambiguous. In approaching a conclusion, we could say that it is possible to interpret film philosophy in different perspectives. At the beginning of this article, we considered that film could engender understanding of the self in the world in conceptual, historical and political terms.

It is, for example, what happens in the repetition of the narrative structure originated in western movies, which is repeated in the context and pace of the metropolis and its characters in gangster films. It reappears in the genre of science fiction, a hybrid of the other two genres, projecting space and time, retaining, however, traces of the past, seen and revised, revisited and renewed. In historical terms, beyond the cyclical and temporal characteristic of the same repeated modernity, it is possible to speak about temporal crystallizations through historical periods and constructions of characters in the scenic and cultural environment representations.

In historical and political terms, we can say that Benjamin faced an obvious conflict, balanced by extreme positions. The grotesque, the expression of ridicule is welcomed by him, because it contains a destructive and critical strength, able to reveal the aestheticizing attempt to distort the whole. There is also a positive meaning of a real existence of the hero, if considered in the ambiguous and dialectical sense of what qualifies a modern hero.

A key word generates discomfort of translation into other languages, because it contains an ambiguity itself. For the matter of this presentation, both reflections have the merit of presenting the intertwining of philosophy, theory of modernity , history and politics.

Gesammelte Schriften. Tiedemann and H. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Taschenbuch , Eine Heldengeschichte der Moderne. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, The impertinent Self. A heroic history of Modernity. Jaron Lanier argues similarly against the spatialization of locked-in ideas about how software is constituted. The overarching intellectual focus on individual and social effects of nanotechnologies whether pro- or contra- , in contrast, manufactures disinterest in all-too-concealed macro-structures, which include the cyber- infrastructural assemblages that invisibly support the various patterns of usage, the institutional maintenance of the technical systems undergirding these technologies, and above all the economic determinants at stake in such support and maintenance.

In the words of David Ribes and Thomas A. Corporate investment in music streaming should be read, above all, against these infrastructural developments; as attempts to control the increasingly centralized computing grid. For many businesses, economies of scale now make it possible to outsource their storage needs and computer applications to these sites at much reduced cost.

Mobile computing on a mass scale has followed suit. To invoke a question I raised in the context of a critique of Deleuzian postmodernism: Is not the argus-eyed and micro-capillaried digital network, its algorithmic surveillance attuned to ever-finer gradations of resonance between consumer desire and niche market production, the very lifeblood of Capital today?

They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it. They required too much of our full attention. A good technology, according to him, functions like a tool. A tool, when properly used, disappears as a function of its use, moving to the background of our attention. In Luke Jansen, chief executive officer of Tigerspike, a media company with a specialization in mobile, for example, addressed the possibility of integrating digital chips in contact lenses and teeth.

It is as if these, basically postmodern, interpretative pluralities foster determined incuriosity toward the metanarratives that undergird fragmentation of socialities into plural dimensions in the first place. The liberatory, utopian aspects of mobile communication in our times become at most a compressed freedom; contained—in both senses—by a rigid, mandatory technological structure.

Or, put differently, effortless habituation in divisible mobilities has entailed containing their emancipatory promise, bringing down a curse thereby. In the older music economy, the media of music its tangible forms—vinyl, cassette, compact disc, and so on were fused with its contents its sounding forms—songs, symphonies, and so on , which facilitated its efficient circulation as a physical commodity.

In the newer economy, medium and content are increasingly delinked; the former effectively dematerialized; or, more accurately, micro-materialized, which is to say transformed from an actual tangible medium to a seemingly virtual digital format. The virtualization of music parallels the shift toward ever-miniaturized, and therefore concealed, technologies centered around mobility.

Interestingly, the MP3 format itself, developed in the s by Karlheinz Brandenburger and others at the Fraunhofer Institute in Erlangen, Germany, was encoded as a commodity form, including, for example, digitally inscribed copyright protections in its code.

For this reason, Sterne insists that the MP3, for all its invisibility, retains its thinglike character. This is an important point in the context of the emerging cloud-based music economy, to which I will return shortly.

With the mainstreaming of peer-to-peer connectivity in the early s, large-scale practices of exchange were no longer primarily governed by financial transactions. According to the International Federation of the Phonograph Industry, only one in twenty digitally downloaded musical tracks was legally purchased in Web 2. The collapse of the mass-industrial music sector thus witnessed the burgeoning of an independent, and more diverse, extra-industrial sector.

For LaPlante, Bracy, Byrne, and others, the new technologies ushered in a period of unprecedented musical freedoms. Music, in this view, has shifted from a more communitarian-oriented activity the age before the technological reproducibility of sound to a more a privatized one the age of the recording industry and now back again the age of disintermediated network connectivity.

One might say this urge is part of our genetic makeup. By , the listening habits of a new generation of listeners had shifted. Illegal file-sharing rapidly decreased and online music streaming became the norm. Indeed, as Weingarten points out, 95 self-mounted digital musical downloads are not in themselves lucrative: despite the hundreds of blogs, thousands of downloads, and millions of views of OK Go songs, for example, the band cannot effectively sell their music online.

In his book Mashed Up: Music, Technology, and the Rise of Configurable Culture , for example, Aram Sinnreich extols the virtues of the new nonlinear modes of intertextual music-making, whose patterns deftly recapitulate the networked architectures of new digital technologies. Online culture is dominated by trivial mashups of the culture that existed before the onset of mashups, and by fandom responding to the dwindling outposts of centralized mass media.

Everything is retro, retro, retro. Arguably, by leveraging a kind of reflective techno-terroir, these genres critically engage with the consumer culture upon which they depend. Lanier, however, would regard this kind of artistic practice as derivative and reactionary. It is in the context of new business opportunities associated with cloud computing, where millions of computers and servers are linked to human and nonhuman agents invisibly harvesting, processing, and analyzing data, that free work should be scrutinized.

Aside from the winners known as Bellkor, a global alliance of some thirty members , three years of labor, involving thousands of teams, from over countries, missed the mark. Likewise, the website Crowdspring acts as an interface between companies and graphic designers and writers, promising an average of entries per project.

The economic logic is evident: for every successfully purchased design, we find about one hundred redundant ones. The list of platforms providing crowd-sourced opportunities goes on. This is the unpaid labor that increasingly delivers content and data to profit-oriented mainstream platforms.

Paradoxically, in the context of music-making, such nonproprietory volunteerism resonates with a host of 60s-era countercultural themes—the virtues of free culture, the death of the author, the irreducibility of intertextuality, the flourishing of creativity, the productive dimension of reception and consumption, the demise of oppressive copyright protection, and so on—which come ideologically to signal a massive divide between the music industry and digital music users.

Quite apart from the well-established legacy of anti-establishment credibility afforded by countercultural rhetoric for the advertising and branding of commodities and services, brands themselves have also leveraged the tactile-behavioral logic associated with new technologies for their own ends. While iTunes still represents an older model for the commercial delivery of music in bit-size chunks, instead of cloud-based streaming , it is worth noting a downward trend as far as the per-unit revenues received by actual musicians is concerned.

Byrne notes, for example, that, while iTunes returns a higher percentage of its revenues to artists 14 percent , Apple itself receives 30 percent; furthermore, the actual amount received by artists is less than what they would receive with a traditional CD. As mobile technologies coupled with subscription-based streaming services become mainstream, and the concomitant stockpiling of music in user-controlled digital memory dissipates, unit-based revenues for artists has diminished much further, if not withered outright.

While the economics of streaming are vexingly opaque, the measurable revenue streams toward actual artists indicate remarkably meager returns. Mode Records, for example, received less than one third of a penny for every stream on Spotify. Instead of monetizing per stream, music labels tend to be invested in equity shares in the streaming services themselves.

This means that revenues generated by advertising and subscription fees are proportionately divided up among equity holders and only then distributed to artists, according to variable agreements between artists and labels. Just as consumption is delinked therefrom, remuneration, in the era of streaming, is therefore delinked from the unit-based legal model meant to guide it. Given the mismatch between the flow of capital and investment, it is not surprising that the most powerful music streaming platforms, such as YouTube and Spotify, are also the lowest revenue-producing platforms for artists.

As a result, even stars like Lady Gaga were locked into recording label deals that generated no revenue for the artist from streams on Spotify. Far from tending toward disintermediation, the old industrial intermediaries have effectively been transformed into or substituted by a handful of cloud-based hyperintermediaries.

In this sense, the crisis of intellectual property in the context of information production today could signal a terminal danger for capitalism itself. In other words, creative work that may have fallen off the radar of searchability under older technological conditions exists on the market, and, newly visible, may even migrate up the long tail.

Lanier, for example, argues that the alliance has resulted in a new kind of social contract:. The basic idea of this contract is that authors, journalists, musicians, and artists are encouraged to treat the fruits of their intellects and imaginations as fragments to be given without pay to the hive mind. Reciprocity takes the form of self-promotion. Culture is to become precisely nothing but advertising. I prefer to think of the Long Tail as being a tail to a different animal.

It is not the long tail of the Beast of Commercial Profits. Rather it is the long tail of the Dragon of Love. The love of creating, of making, of connecting, of unreasonable passion, or making a difference, or doing something that matters to ourselves, the love of connecting, giving, learning, producing, and sharing. It is important to know which tail we are wagging.

How it will be possible, without some way of controlling pricing and distribution, for individuals or music companies to cover expenditures related to longer-term creative projects, the development of new artists, and elaborate studio productions, is uncertain. In contrast, it is unlikely that the proprietors of the major cloud computing centers will discourage the culture of unpaid creative labor, especially in the context of subscription-based streaming services; it is even less likely in the context of free advertising-driven services; and most unlikely in the context of search-based services.

Better to play the big-n statistical game of User Generated Content [the doctrine of statistical reliability through sheer magnitude], as YouTube has. Nelson proposed that whenever a digital bit of music, journalism, video art, and so forth was accessed by a user, the maker of that expression should be paid a moderate sum.

As a result, anyone might be able to get rich from creative work. The people who make a momentarily popular prank video clip might earn a lot of money in a single day, but an obscure scholar might eventually earn as much over many years as her work is repeatedly referenced. But note that this is a very different idea from the long tail, because it rewards individuals instead of cloud owners. In addition, Lanier argues that copy-protection technologies should be reinstated even if they cannot be perfected , banking on the idea that most people would accept the kind of social contract that expects a moderate payment for a cultural item or expression that reward creators directly.

Failing the kind of libertarian hypercapitalism advanced here, it becomes difficult to envisage a flourishing and sustainable culture outside of socialism. If music is to retain its cultural value, it may also need to retain an aspect of its thing-like, content-based character, which is otherwise gradually being eroded by mobile computers tethered to streamlined services alone.

Not only does the piecemeal, self-employed work proffered in the context of crowd-sourcing, practically by definition, demand a nonalienated relationship to that work, but full-time employees are increasingly expected to express such a relationship within the traditional workplace as well. Labor processes in the digital age are looking more and more alike. The production by information and knowledge workers—including journalism, telecommunication, information technology, design, and other cultural communities—is approximating, as it were, the condition of musical work.

As it is with musical work, creativity, open-mindedness, initiative, entrepreneurial skill, originality, individualism, and innovation are common subjective preconditions for employment in the context of intermittent, freelance, and temporary tasks afforded by the independently networked environment.

The new subject of capital is not that of law-abiding servility under the oppressive gaze of power, but instead decentered, innovative, flexible, and networked. Lazzarato characterizes such metropolitan immaterial labor as precarious, hyper-exploited, mobile, and hierarchic, and detects within the creative class the appearance of an intellectual proletariat.

As shown earlier, digital media in the 21 st century have ushered in widespread new online habiti , which, in turn, have proffered new networked socialites. In the large-scale context of enhanced digital efficiencies in delivery, experience, etc. Given the constitutive dependence of musicking on community or, put differently, on the publicity-accessed public , this model becomes selectively, and deceptively, in visible within the network. On the one hand, online communities bear witness to intermittent musical successes self-launched artists, flash mob events and parties, audiovisual memes, viral videos, etc.

It is the private, richly subjective, invisible crowd that proffers new forms of capture for the increasingly privatized invisible cloud. The question is, what kind of storm will be precipitated as the evaporating crowd increasingly serves as nervous system for the accumulating cloud? Can these new subjectively inflected laborers—the creative commons in production—open up production to the commons? Or do the creative commons merely innervate capitalist industry and services?

Has a new anthropological reality—a generalized creative communism or communalism within capitalism—morphed into a kind of communism of capitalism; or more presciently, a communism for capitalism? Katz ed. Ayers ed. Glotz, S.

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