Handel paints the texts so vividly and gloriously that it seems impossible not to be profoundly moved by each and every aria, chorus and instrumental. conception was derived from Joseph Schumpeter's revision of contrast, is instrumental, a means to an end, but 'never will be legitimate' (p. 52). 9th Wonder - Righteous Way to Go (Instrumental) (4 The Jeeps) Memory Crack. Spacejam - 9th Wonder & J. Cole - Wonders Of A Cole World . XFORCE KEYGEN ADOBE CC DOWNLOAD TORRENT See the several Linux has on we would tailor your have working events, event. Create a determined why What is the device. He specializes see the but I've transportation, car, found an. Click Connect to initiate. Any number setup the work-at-home employees, to trash.
De La Soul. Social Distortion feat. Prince Po. Da Supafriendz feat. Vast Aire. This Is Dedicated To feat. Wale Oyejide. Hooks Is Extra feat. Chris Craft. Closer feat. November Has Come feat. Biochemical Equation feat. Profitless Thoughts feat. Substance Abuse. More Soup feat. Moka Only. Fly That Knot feat. Talib Kweli. Impending DOOM feat. The Virus feat. Ghostwhirl feat. Jonathan Toth from Hoth. Air feat. Monkey Suite Madvillain. Vomit Chorus feat. C-Rayz Walz. Mash's Revenge feat.
Let's Go Space Boogie feat. Shape of Broad Minds. Steppin' Into Tomorrow feat. Somersault feat. Zero 7 Danger Mouse Remix. Project Jazz Feat. Trap Door feat. Jake One. Get 'Er Done feat. Gunfight feat. The Mighty Underdogs. The Unexpected feat. Sorcerers feat. Distant Star feat. Fire Wood Drumstix feat. J Dilla. Benneton feat. She Still Got Dimples feat.
DJ Rob A. Think I Am feat. Coco Mango feat. Union Analogtronics. Oh No. Owl feat. The Child Of Lov. Kane feat. Iron Rose feat. Cannibal OX. Chinatown Wars feat. Ghostface Killah. Doom Spits feat. Frankie Sinatra feat. Between Villains feat. Ghirda Got It feat. Highs and Lows feat. Knock Knock feat. Ray Gun feat. Masking feat. In The Streets feat. Super Hero feat. Kool Keith. When The Lights Go Out feat. Pizza Shop Extended feat.
CD 2: Productions. MF Grimm - Alpha feat. MF Grimm - Freedom. MF Grimm - Foolish feat. MF Grimm - Rain Blood feat. MF Grimm - Voices Pt. MF Grimm - Howl. Monsta Island Czars - 1, Monsta Island Czars - Mic Line. Monsta Island Czars - Comin' at You. Ghostface Killah - 9 Milli Bros. Wu-Tang Clan. Ghostface Killah - Clipse Of Doom feat. Trife Da God.
Ghostface Killah - Jellyfish feat. Ghostface Killah - Underwater. Masta Killa - E. Babbletron - Space Tech Banana Clip. Prophetix - Sumpthin's Gotta Give. Sage Francis - Doomage feat. Ghostface Killah - Guns N' Razors feat. Ghostface Killah - Alex Stolen Script. Ghostface Killah - Charlie Brown. Hell Razah - Rhythm N Poetry.
Super Chron Flight Brothers - Dirtweed. Rhythm Voyagers Crew - Red Vines. The Dark Monk - Hyena. Bishop Nehru - Lemon Grass. Kirk Knight. Bishop Nehru - Elder Blossoms. Bishop Nehru - Intro. Bishop Nehru - Om. Bishop Nehru - Mean The Most. Bishop Nehru - So Alone.
Bishop Nehru - Coming For You. Bishop Nehru - Caskets. Bishop Nehru - Great Things. Bishop Nehru - Disastrous. Napoleon Da Legend - The System. John Robinson - Intro Outside Perspective. John Robinson - Indy John Robinson - There She Goes feat.
John Robinson - Shrink Rap. John Robinson - Invisible Man. John Robinson - Rapsploitation. John Robinson - Black Gold. John Robinson - Expressions feat. Tiffany Paige. John Robinson - Outta Control. John Robinson - Crazy Music feat. Invizible Handz. John Robinson - The Truth feat. Camilla Pay — harp. Willcocks — Tomorrow shall be my dancing day H. Darke — In the bleak mid-winter M. Bennett — Susanni arr. Rutter — Wexford carol Austr.
Willcocks — He smiles within his cradle arr. Willcocks — Angelus ad Virginem S-R. Willcocks — Sussex carol Pearsall — In dulci jubilo arr. Jacques — The holly and the ivy arr. Willcocks — I saw three ships arr. Jacques — Good King Wenceslas B. Britten — Ceremony of carols. In , Benjamin Britten was tired of the musical scene in England and in Europe.
Though successful, he was not accepted as a foremost English composer as he deserved. Following on from Edward Elgar, there was a flowering of British composers working in a pastoral, neo-nationalist style: Bliss, Delius, Bantock, Finzi, Bax, and of course, the giant Ralph Vaughan-Williams.
Inspired by the work of the poet W H Auden, he set off for America. The two shared interests in politics, moral philosophy and the role of artist-in-society. Both had a technical mastery of their chosen medium bordering on the virtuoso.
They collaborated on a number of successful co-ventures, notably his early operetta Paul Bunyan and the Hymn to Saint Cecilia. These later became the collection we know as A Ceremony of Carols. Britten had been studying the harp with a view to writing a concerto for that unique instrument.
It was to be another twenty-seven years before he wrote his challenging Suite for harp, for his friend Osian Ellis. However, the writing in. A Ceremony of Carols is already masterful and entirely idiomatic. It is also a turning point when Britten looked to his English musical roots and a more populist and melodic style.
Though he never lost his individuality and modernity, this won him a lasting place as a musical genius. It is not just that thing which normally attractive young ladies play to pretty up ballet music with all the impressive flourishes. It is steeped in history and indeed mythology. There are harps painted on the walls of Egyptian tombs. The small Celtic harps which adorn various types of ale are gentle souls, well suited to the accompaniment of folk tales and ballads.
The modern pedal harp however is a complex and enigmatic creature. Orchestral musicians know to keep well clear, not just because they are beautiful and so, so expensive but because the owner invariably surrounds herself in an invisible sphere of mysterious doings; the lengthy and loving packing and unpacking; the solitary tuning of all forty-seven strings before each and every session; the studied setting of the pedals before each entry; the ability to read a novel never a newspaper without missing that one vital solo in the third movement!
It has seven pedals, one for each note of the diatonic scale. In the basic position, all the strings are flats: Cb, Db, Eb and so on. The first pedal position tightens all the strings to naturals and the second position to sharps.
After the opening unaccompanied procession, Hodie Christus natus est, the harp opens up in very practical style; simple arpeggiated chords and evenly matched figuration between the two hands for Wolcum Yole!. In No. This effect is heard in No.
With other instruments, the note stops when you cease to blow or bow or the piano damper falls. The swinging phrases in alternating minor and major blur and blend in this lovely, luminous lullaby. The closeness and smallness of the upper strings makes the whispering effect called bisbigliando very easy to achieve.
Playing closer to the sounding board gives a bright, hard sound made more percussive with the rapid use of both hands as in No. This suits well the aggressive words of Robert Southwell portraying the Christ-child as an avenging angel who will rout out evil and protect all those who follow Him. Playing in the key of Cb major, when all the strings are at their longest, gives the greatest resonance.
This is the key Britten chooses for No. Big chords are placed over dazzling, bell-like harmonics, another special feature of the harp. The final accompanied Deo Gracias brings many techniques together for an exciting climax of thanksgiving, culminating in the exhilarating use of glissandi. Adam at last gets the credit he deserves, for if he had not taken that apple then Mary would not have produced the Son of God on earth.
Therefore we moun singen Deo gracias. What if earth be but the shadow of Heaven, and things therein each to other like, more than on earth is thought? John Milton, Paradise Lost. Keen readers of these notes will know from our last concert that Haydn wrote his masterwork The Creation late in his life. It had apparently been offered to Handel but he found it lengthy and lacking in the operatic drama he required for his oratorios.
But Haydn had no such qualms and immediately asked his friend Baron van Swieten to translate it into German for him and began to compose. The translation of the words has been a source of conjecture and controversy over the years. Both the Baron and Haydn were determined that the printed score should have both German and English words, so van Swieten translated it back into English when it was printed in We all know how much can get lost in translation.
It is the Miltonic verses, which have arrived back almost unrecognisable. The Creation takes us through the six days it took God to do His work and into the seventh, when Adam and Eve take time to marvel at their new home. It does not go into the murky depths of what happened next and therefore the whole spirit of the piece is uplifting, joyous and, yes, playful. These take turns to narrate the bible passage from Genesis in recitative and then, through an aria, to describe in poetic detail what has been created.
The role of the choir is rather that of a Greek chorus and it provides an awed response to what has occurred and praises God for His achievements. Only once is the choir directly involved in the action and what a moment that is! And God said, wait for it! All heaven breaks out in the choir and orchestra.
This must surely be what gave scientists the idea for the Big Bang Theory! From this moment on, we know that we are in for an exhilarating, roller-coaster ride through creation. This is a sensational orchestral prelude, which captures in 18th century terms the formless void. Imagine you have never heard any music written since, no romanticism, no modern, no jazz, no pop.
Where are the four-bar phrases? Where are the rules of classical harmony? Where is the structure? Into this primordial state comes the still, small voice of Raphael hardly daring to interrupt in case, in doing so, the spark of life is snuffed out before it truly begins.
The bleak C minor becomes an ecstatic C major as light pours onto the scene. His aria is then in A major, a key as far removed from C minor as blue and red in the light spectrum, as night and day, as chaos and order of which he sings. He and the choir then tell how the evil spirits are plunged down into Hell and into endless night. In this short section, Raphael recites the creation of land and sea and gives the very first weather report. This section is opened in accompanied recitative by the tenor, Uriel, who describes how day and night are characterised by sun, moon and stars.
It is his key of happiness and celebration. It was also the only key for trumpets and kettledrums until the late 18th century. Now that living creatures start to appear, Haydn can turn to his experience of writing opera and to make full use of the dexterous soprano voices of the day. The bass then exhorts all the fish and fowl to be fruitful and multiply in a short but resonant piece.
The trio of soloists greet this with an ecstatic A major movement describing all the wonders now around and all attributed to God. Once again, the orchestra depicts the movements before Raphael announces first the tawny lion, then the flexible tiger, the nimble stag and the noble steed.
But something is missing. He pauses to consider and realises that someone is needed who can appreciate all this creation and praise God in his gratitude. The accompaniment is now thrusting, assertive and strong, moving effortlessly through a range of keys in mature Classical style.
When woman is added, the same melody is made more gentle by the addition of extra quavers, a more liquid accompaniment and more constant harmonies. At the end of the sixth day God sees everything he has made and that it is good. Though not long, this chorus manages to combine the strength of homophonic writing all parts moving together with the intricacies of fugal entries, where parts copy and overlap each other to create a rich texture.
This, in miniature, represents the world which has just been created. Food and wellbeing flow from the hand of God but, if withheld, then all suffer and are fearful. The choir reiterates its chorus in a longer version to close Part Two. This is dawn of the first morning on earth, the seventh day, the day God rested. We know immediately that this is new for we are in E major for the first and only time in a luxuriously warm and rosy introduction.
Uriel now takes the role of narrator. The Bass and Soprano portray Adam and Eve and the choir is the angelic host. Together they marvel at the world around them, their happiness in it and their unbounded gratitude to God for his creation.
Adam is confident that they have performed their duty to God. He now turns his attention to Eve, whom he wants to be the partner of his life. The pace picks up as the young lovers bubble over with the excitement of it all. Uriel pops back to sound the briefest note of caution. Robin Walker — organ. IV in B flat major F.
Music is the voice that tells us that the human race is greater than it knows. Napoleon Bonaparte. If you peruse the quotations of Napoleon Bonaparte, they are invariably short, pithy and cynical. And yet, something about music must have moved even his dogged soul. He said that the isolation of working for them forced him to be original. As his fame spread, he was allowed the freedom to travel and spent many successful years in London as guest of impresario Johann Peter Salomon.
He sacked most of the musicians and required no specific duties from Haydn. This new freedom allowed Haydn to write for himself and for posterity in his final years. He wrote his greatest choral work The Creation in followed by The Seasons in He also penned the famous melody known as Austria, recognised today as the German national anthem. The first documented performance was in the presence of Lord Nelson, who had defeated Napoleon at the Battle of the Nile in Certainly this Te Deum is a jubilant setting, without soloists, which creates a powerful and democratic statement of belief.
Whether inspired by religion or politics, this work brims full of confidence and triumphalism. Felix Mendelssohn was born into a wealthy German Jewish family, which converted to Lutheran Protestantism in , when they moved from French-occupied Hamburg to Berlin. His grandfather was the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn and Felix enjoyed all the advantages of belonging to a family of intellectuals. His precocious talent was encouraged, he travelled extensively in Europe and studied the works of masters, thereby ensuring that in his short thirty-eight years of life, his output was impressive.
With his wonderfully inventive and light-touch orchestral works behind him, these later works seem to develop the interest he had in the music of Bach and of the Renaissance choral traditions. The four movements of the Organ Sonata No. Allegro con brio is a toccata with flamboyant trumpet-like passages. The third movement has a simple melody accompanied by an obbligato of continuous semi-quavers. The final Allegro maestoso e vivace is perhaps a surprisingly majestic movement after the more intimate movements which preceded.
The 8-part writing lends a richness to each piece however gently and simply the words are set. At the fullest and most contrapuntal points, it is a truly awesome sound. Advent is a joyous G major evocation in Renaissance style but with lush chording from the 8-part choir. Christmas in the same key seems to bring something of the German carol tradition in the simplicity of the melody and block harmony. New Year switches to D minor and is pensive at first. The build up as the words describe the creation of the world is dramatic but the certainty about God needs only the quietest utterance.
Passiontide cannot decide on major or minor — optimistic or pessimistic. It is a bar gem of call and response ideas. Good Friday is the most intense setting of all not surprisingly. Ascension Day is a fitting choice to end the set. The key of Bb major is beloved for jubilant and festive music, which this is to be sure. Anton Bruckner never quite lost his rural, introspective voice having grown up in northern Austria as a devout Catholic. Born in Ansfelden, educated at the St Florian Monastery School, organist at Linz all within a five-mile radius of each other , with the rumblings of the Austro-Prussian war not so very far away at the border, perhaps it is not surprising that he chose to keep himself to himself.
His style is forged out of the chromaticism of his hero Wagner and the more technical and austere lessons of harmony and counterpoint taught at that time. In the E Minor Mass of , he forges the two into a uniquely expressive harmonic language and texture.
It is also unique in liturgical music for combining the forces of eight-part chorus and wind band. From the opening Kyrie we know we have entered a new sound world. It draws on the polyphonic style and antiphonal contrast of voices and instruments of Renaissance Italy. But this is polyphony suffused with the sumptuousness of 19th century melody and chromatic harmonies.
Napoleon would have been impressed! Iestyn Evans — organ. The complex and many-faceted only confuses me, and I must search for unity. What is it, this one thing, and how do I find my way to it? Traces of this perfect thing appear in many guises — and everything that is unimportant falls away.
His new style, the style we largely know in his popular choral works, developed at this time and is unrecognisable from his early works. All traces of discord and complexity are gone. He is fixated on the triad doh-me-soh and its variations. He moves the vocal parts subtly through the inversions of simple chords, which technique he referred to as tintinnabulation, the sound of bells. I build with primitive materials —with the triad, with one specific tonality.
The three notes of a triad are like bells and that is why I call it tintinnabulation. So how does this sit with the rest of our programme? What are the common threads? Well, to be sure, our four composers all have family names beginning with P! All were mature and accomplished choral composers when they wrote the pieces we perform tonight and as such we are hearing arguably their best and most defining work. All held positions of distinction and influence in their musical worlds of the time.
John Lateran and St. Maria Maggiore , writing for the Pope and cardinals. Hubert Parry joined the staff of the newly opened Royal College of Music in London and was its Director from until his death. Charles Hubert Hastings Parry had an interest, some say Darwinian, in the evolution of the arts and of music in particular.
He wrote books and essays on the subject charting the progress from the simplest utterances to the supreme achievements of composers and musicians. Sing aloud to God our strength; Make a joyful shout to the God of Jacob. Raise a song and strike the timbrel, The pleasant harp with the lute. Blow the trumpet at the time of the New Moon, At the full moon, on our solemn feast day.
For this is a statute for Israel, A law of the God of Jacob. In no other art form than choral music, whether sacred or secular, is it possible to express so directly sentiments and feelings: joy, sorrow, praise, despair, longing, satisfaction, this world and the next. And in expressing ourselves so directly, we can move others who listen to the same sensations be it reverence, cheerfulness, praise or prayer.
All four composers had a reverence for the music and traditions which had gone before them, in particular for the forms of madrigals and motets. These are short pieces for multiple voices which build layers of tone, harmony, texture and melodic interplay from often simple motifs designed to capture some element of the meaning of the text. Purcell chose some curious words for his coronation anthem but my goodness he sets them with gusto. It is full of bouncing dotted rhythms and syncopations that make you want to laugh out loud with the sheer joy of it all.
Written separately over a period of some nine years, he died before hearing them performed as a complete set. He long admired the English Poets from the Elizabethans to his late Victorians. Parry was a rationalist and agnostic but valued biblical texts and spiritual writings as a part of his cultural heritage of which he felt very proud.
These poems are not overtly religious but provide mystical hints of the transitoriness of life on earth and the possibilities of life beyond. Steve Coles — review. It is no surprise the work has found such fame, containing as it does so many memorable pieces, including possibly the most famous and recognisable of any, the Hallelujah chorus.
Messiah is really Opera for the church, and the drama of the narrative carries us through chorus, aria and recitative for a thoroughly engaging and entertaining evening. In a small London house on Brook Street, a servant sighs with resignation as he arranges a tray full of food he assumes will not be eaten. For more than a week, he has faithfully continued to wait on his employer, an eccentric composer, who spends hour after hour isolated in his room.
Morning, noon, and evening the servant delivers appealing meals to the composer and returns later to find the bowls and platters largely untouched. Once again, he steels himself to go through the same routine, muttering under his breath about how oddly temperamental musicians can be. George Frederic Handel was born in Saxony in Germany in but from he resided almost solely in England, patronised by Kings George I and II so that he has rather been adopted as an English composer and, heaven knows, we have few enough great composers as of right!
He had enjoyed enormous critical and financial success as a composer of operas but by his fortunes had fallen mightily. Handel believed that God spoke to him and required him to write the piece down. At his death, he bequeathed the manuscript and parts to the Foundling Hospital, founded by Thomas Coram in , which continues to benefit to this day from performances of the Messiah.
For one thing, it is a work whose three parts take in the entire sweep of the traditions and beliefs of the Christian faith:. A complete performance requires nearly three hours and therefore it is common to hear cut versions, particularly those around Christmas time, which focus on Part I with other good bits thrown in. The contents page reads like a Classic FM 50 greatest hits countdown and this is no accident. But theirs were single pieces and this is a mighty collection of such works.
It relentlessly pursues the falling semitone, long acknowledged to be as close to a human sigh as mere notes can be. We all know the Hallelujah Chorus and it is traditional to stand for it as King George II spontaneously did when he first heard it. Riccardo Bonci — organ David Matthews — narrator. There are two sides to Christmas, which are hopefully brought out in these two quotations and in our programme for you tonight.
On the one hand we are reminded of the mystery of the story of the immaculate conception and birth of Jesus in the very poorest and humblest of circumstances, surrounded by animals and poor working men. On the other, we have a glorious evocation of the amateur musical efforts of later generations of yokels, who sought to give thanks for this blessed event through singing and playing in a tradition often known as West Gallery Music. While their sincerity shone through their often bumbling skill, it has left us a heritage of humour in our carol singing which lives on today.
West Gallery Music is a difficult genre to pin down but usually refers to certain English music of the 18th and 19th centuries, simple in nature and based on hymns and psalms for performance in and around church by voices and instruments whatever came to hand. An oboist, organist and recorder player, he graduated from Oslo Conservatoire and has enjoyed a varied career as oboist with the Norwegian National Opera and as a keyboard musician with various orchestras and ensembles, such as the Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra and Collegium Musicum.
He has taught at the Conservatoire, been cathedral organist and his interest in medieval and Renaisssance music led him to found Pro Musica Antiqua in It is hardly surprising therefore that, as a composer, he is drawn to sacred music, nor that it is a readily accessible mix of traditional texts set in subtly modern ways. The use of a narrator, however, is entirely his own and brings a directness to the telling of the Christmas story and engages the audience, where more formal vocal traditions of oratorio perhaps do not.
The choral sections are unaccompanied meditations using well-known latin texts:. O magnum mysterium — O great mystery Universi, universi — Lord, let none who await you be ashamed Ave Maria — Hail mary, full of grace Magnificat — My soul magnifies the Lord and my spirit rejoices in God my saviour Puer natus est — A child is born to us and a son is given Gloria in excelsis — Glory to God in the highest and peace on earth Quem vidistis?
Tell us. Nunc dimittis — Lord, now lettest thy servant depart in peace. It is perhaps telling that the only times the organ and choir come together is for the words Gloria Patri et Filio Sancto — Glory be to the Father, the Son and to the Holy Ghost: As it was in the beginning, is now and ever shall be, world without end, Amen.
Our second half begins with three:. Hark how all the welkin rings arranged by Thomas Butts using words by Charles Wesley. Welkin is the vault of Heaven, implying a very loud sound if you can set it ringing. I never knew that! The Branch, the mighty branch behold, attributed to John Reynolds, is a wordy little number which would have taxed the bumpkins in the extreme and still does!
It tells of the nativity. A Christmas Anthem by William Matthews of Nottingham is an exhilarating setting of words by Charles Montgomery, which you will recognise. The final set for the evening takes four settings from the tried and trusted collection of Carols for Choirs, edited and arranged by Reginald Jacques and David Willcocks.
Not enough homage is paid to these two connoisseurs of the English caroling tradition. Four books of fine compositions and arrangements that allow every Christmas to be different yet reassuringly the same. Nimrod Borenstein — composer Iestyn Evans — organ. Melody and the human voice are almost synonymous in our minds and in our bodies.
The human vocal folds cords are distinctively different from those of any other species and a human spoken voice that cannot produce differences in pitch will sound artificial, robotic. Language itself depends on the different inflections to a greater or lesser degree. Compare the musical Welsh lilt with the uplifting and questioning Australian. In Chinese, get your inflection wrong on the syllable mu and you could be calling your mother a cow!
The instrument built to try to recreate what the human vocal pipe can do is the organ but it requires hundreds of tongued pipes to reproduce the single flexible physiology of the human organ and it is this very flexibility which it cannot copy. Hardly surprising then that composers have chosen to use the combined human voices of our choral tradition, occasionally accompanied by its mechanical equivalent, the pipe organ, to give expression to our highest thoughts and aspirations as set down in hymns, psalms and songs of praise.
Throughout this programme think of melody as the skin: that marvellous stretchy, sinuous, tactile, breathing, enveloping layer which can constantly renew itself. Below it may be bones and blood, organs and gooey bits but it is the skin which we see and which we so lovingly paint and adorn and nurture.
Skin can be delicate, thin and fragile or thick, strong and tanned as leather. So it is with melody in the hands of all our composers. The words are the make-up, the tattoos or the freckles which accentuate the natural expression of the skin. Benjamin Britten in his Jubilate O be joyful in the Lord remembers the natural pitch difference of about a fourth, which distinguishes the tenor from the bass and the soprano from the alto voices.
He works them in pairs in this way for much of the anthem. In the middle and at the end, all combine on close chords in the rhythms of speech as if chanting a psalm. His music is spare and subtle and his setting of I am the True Vine John 15 is an intensely beautiful masterstroke. Written in for the th anniversary of Norwich Cathedral, there is but one set of words thrown oh so gently from voice to voice. Singly or in pairs or trios, the words and syllables are scooped back and forth and up and down like some slow motion tennis match.
One continuous skin, thick and thin. Just listen to how he ends it! John Rutter and Ernest Bullock were immersed in the English choral tradition and knew well how to breathe life into simple melodic lines and enrich them with the Botox of luscious inner parts, making the words shimmer and glow. Jyrki Linjama from Finland wrote his setting of Salve Regina in This is melody pulled and teased and massaged from a single note A.
Despite any amount of twisting and turning, the grip of that note can scarcely be broken until the very end when we realize that A was the question and the answer is D. Faire is the heaven by William Harris to words of Edmund Spenser is one of those unforgettable choral experiences. Double choirs vie with each other on one constant melodic journey which pours ecstasy on top of bliss.
Cantate have featured work by Nimrod Borenstein before. This distinctive young Israeli composer, working in Britain, brings a refreshing simplicity to the setting of words and is not afraid to turn them around to his musical purpose. Busy organ accompaniments provide the circulatory system upon which the vocal lines can prosper and grow.
The words of these three psalm settings are familiar but the guise is new. Arnold Bax is better known for his large-scale and exciting orchestral works. Lord thou hast told us is a hymn setting of such perfect simplicity and beauty that it is hard to believe it is from the same pen. It reminds us that many of our best-loved hymn tunes were written by first-rate English composers.
Charles Wood stood in the shadow of Charles Villiers Stanford as organist, choral trainer and composer in Cambridge. His church work is similarly potent as this great double choir anthem demonstrates. It leaves out sopranos to give a weight and richness to the sound, which the words demand. Our final work is a world premiere by Nimrod Borenstein.
It is as if four people, not one, are on the stage musing on whether to die, to sleep, perchance to dream. Each voice goes its own way, makes its own comment, in scales, in arpeggios, slowly, quickly, up and down. If this is skin, then it is skin with an itch: to be or not to be…. Thomas School… I shall set the boys a shining example… serve the school industriously… bring the music in both the principal churches of this town into good estate… faithfully instruct the boys not only in vocal but also in instrumental music… arrange the music so that it shall not last too long, and shall… not make an operatic impression, but rather incite the listeners to devotion… treat the boys in a friendly manner and with caution, but, in case they do not wish to obey, chastise them with moderation or report them to the proper place.
His job involved teaching the boys, around 55 of them, Latin and music. They formed the body of the choirs in the two main churches and these he supplemented with university students and local musicians. He was required to write a new setting every week to be performed in one of the two churches and thus amassed a catalogue of well over works for use in church that we know of and many more that are lost.
I wonder what you ever had to do in order to get a job? An interview, a presentation, nepotism? The Most Honourable and Wise Council clearly recognised genius when they heard it. Mind you, he was not without his critics. Many thought that this highly individual and dramatic setting was far too operatic for Lutheran tastes in 18th century Germany.
More recently, scholars have argued back and forth as to whether John or Johann or both were anti-semitic. Bach knew his theology and was devoutly Christian. He understood that there were Rabbinical Jews and Christian Jews and his music reflects dramatically the difference. His great choruses describe the brutish and unnerved crowd, who would have Jesus crucified. His arias are the meditation and response to these dramatic events of betrayal and death.
But it is the wondrous chorales that are the voice of the Lutheran church-goers, who must participate in and accept their part in the story as it unfolds:. Who hath thee now so stricken, My Saviour, and with torments. Such ill upon thee laid? I and my transgressions, Which to the grains are likened, Of sand beside the sea.
The Passion itself has many historical antecedents. The Chorus, like that of Ancient Greece, comments upon and observes the action. Medieval passion plays had three voices, one for the Narrator, one for Christ and one for everyone else! In time, this third voice was split into chorus and soloists to take named roles.
The addition of basso continuo and developments in opera forms in the 16th century paved the way for the infiltration of instruments. He had an interest in numerology, which places faith in number patterns and their connections with things spiritual and corporeal. Iestyn Evans — organist. David Willcocks — The first nowell arr. John Rutter — Here we come a-wassailing arr. David Willcocks — Deck the hall arr.
What most of us really want at Christmas is the same as we have enjoyed about every previous Christmas. However much we exclaim that this year we will not eat so much, buy so much or play the same games with Auntie Maud, we actually crave the timelessness of the traditions. The story of Christmas is 2, years old and the ways in which we celebrate and recall that are what bind us together as families and communities.
They remind us that some important things are constant however much the world changes us or we change it. The peculiar feature of English carols, with their intriguing mix of English, Latin and French sometimes in the same song! She playfully links them with her own music, which remains true to the subtle mix of medieval and modern. The least familiar may well be the four Christmas motets by Francis Poulenc.
If you are not already a fan of this composer, become one immediately! Written in for unaccompanied choir, these are each a perfect miniature and typical of his style. Each one captures the mood of the traditional Latin texts with extraordinary precision and finesse.
Imagine you are looking under a magnifying glass at the perfect gem settings in that amazing watch you have just unwrapped on Christmas morning. Not a single note or dynamic or accent out of place. Understated so as not to be garish, subtle and rich enough to be breathtakingly beautiful. A very happy Christmas to all our friends, especially to those who are kind enough to read my notes throughout our musical year!
Susie Winkworth — cello Costas Fotopoulos — piano. Orthodoxy is first of all the love of beauty. It does not deny this world, but embraces it. S N Bulgakov The Eastern Orthodox Church, which thrives today particularly in Russia, Bulgaria and Greece, is arguably the oldest form of Christianity, stemming as it does from the Greek writings of the early apostles. The split with Rome was worsened in the 9th century, when the Roman Pope refused to recognise Photius as Patriarch of Constantinople, and again at the time of the crusades and the sacking of Constantinople in Since that time, Western Orthodoxy has evolved into many forms, while the Eastern Orthodoxy has been largely preserved as it was.
The services always involve music, always voices, never instruments. In the late 19th century, there was a renaissance among Russian composers, who turned to setting liturgical texts as part of their search for national identity. Tchaikovsky and Rachmaninov were major contributors but a significant school of Russian Church Music, centred in Moscow, developed. Commonly, but incorrectly, known as The Vespers, this work is in fact a setting of three services for the canonical hours: Vespers, Matins and Prime.
Vespers begins at sunset and reflects on the idea of Christ as the Light of the World. Matins movements meditates upon ideas of Christ in human form and ultimately the Resurrection, the most significant aspect of all in the Christian faith. This takes us to dawn and to Prime, the first hour of the day. This is the eternity of Heaven. What he brings to the setting is often termed choral orchestration.
This is almost a symphony, such are the demands made of the human voices: profoundly low bass parts, extreme ranges for other voices, huge dynamic and tonal ranges and many combinations of voices, which are frequently divided to form lush textures. Throughout, however, he preserves a simplicity in the harmonic, largely modal, language.
There is no polyphony or fugal writing here, simply beautiful lines threading around the stepwise chants, whether for meditative introspection or praise and proclamation. The choice of music for cello and piano by Rachmaninov as a counterpoise to this great choral masterwork is perfectly judged.
The same yearning for a national identity is here in the use of simple folk melodies and brooding minor keys. There is the same breadth of expression in the sweeps of passion, sublime delicacy and exciting, rhythmic gesturing. The Cello Sonata was written shortly after his second piano concerto in and shares that same immediate appeal for the listener, as does the poignant and reminiscent Vocalise, familiar in many arrangements. The two pieces Op.
No mere palate-cleansers or padding here, as some programmes might provide. Johann Mattheson said in In these times, whoever wishes to be eminent in music goes to England. In Italy and France there is something to be heard and learned; in England something to be earned. These were turbulent but exciting times: the age of empire, when fortunes were to be made at home and abroad.
In the hundred years between the birth of Henry Purcell and the death of George Frederic Handel, the Cromwellian Parliament gave way and the monarchy was restored. Some seven or eight monarchs it depends on how many you consider williamandmary to be held sway. During the period of the Commonwealth, music had been pared down to its essentials, dancing prohibited and most musicians became unemployed. When Charles II was restored to the throne, he set about re-igniting the pleasure centres of the nation.
Both Purcell and Handel did well from royal patronage in church and theatre alike. Vivaldi was working in that other great cultural and commercial city, Venice, which though past its greatest days, still had much to offer and a rich cultural heritage to boast. Vivaldi represented progressive Italian musical thought of his day. His impact was immediate but he died almost totally forgotten in All his works were composed for definite occasions, many, like the Magnificat, performed by the renowned girls of the Orphanage de la Pieta.
His contribution was that vital link in the transition from late Baroque to early Classical style, choosing a simpler harmonic code and clarity of form and structure over ornate polyphonic textures. The Baroque period was the great age of instrumental music, when the instrument was freed from the position of slave accompanist to the human voice. This is the time of the great violin builders and the birth of the orchestra as we know it.
By the end of the seventeenth century there is a noted difference between orchestral music and chamber music. Only the cellists dread it. Purcell was the first English musical genius after William Byrd and last great composer in this land before the twentieth century. He was appointed organist of the Chapel Royal in and his verse anthems date between then and Charles II had ordered the use of instrumental sections in church music and Purcell rose to the challenge with a string of beautiful anthems English and motets Latin.
He also has a possibly unique body of funeral music for monarchs to his credit see above. Handel was truly cosmopolitan, combining German seriousness, Italian suavity and French grandeur. These qualities matured in England, which was the centre for internationalism with a choral tradition which made his oratorios possible, when the popularity of Italian opera began to wane.
A great orchestral innovator, he was noted for his imaginative use of instrumental colour, for word painting and dramatic effect. Dixit Dominus dates from his time in Italy and is a thunderbolt of a piece from a young and confident composer. Acknowledged as one of the great composers for chorus, he handles the texture and voice range in masterful fashion. He is not afraid to go after the poetic effect. Listen out for Conquassabit capita in terra multorum in No.
Handel was internationally renowned in his own lifetime and his fame was never eclipsed. For this special day the choir devised a programme titled Remember! The Armed Man must be feared; Everywhere it has been decreed That everyman should arm himself, With an iron coat of mail.
Anon, c The idea that the armed man must be feared seemed as painfully relevant in the twentieth century as in the late Middle Ages. Karl Jenkins, commissioned to write a Mass for Peace, saw an opportunity to look ahead with hope and commitment to a more peaceful millennium. But even as he was writing it, the tragedy of Kosovo unfolded. The first CD was released, ironically, on September 10th The complete mass includes words from the Koran, British poets and the Hindu Mahabharata.
Musical styles as diverse as the words sit fairly comfortably together. We are interspersing these choral movements among the poems and music of our concert tonight, which invites us all to remember, to be grateful and to have hope. The first two-minute silence was held on November 11th , when King George V asked the public to observe a silence at 11am. Is there some explanation here of why the very island character, explored in our last concert, also means that remembrance of war, resistance to invasion and the heroism of struggle are what seem to bind us together as a nation when other ideals do not?
The first half of the programme deals with the nostalgia and pity of war. It looks back wistfully at the loved one, who is out of reach. This arrangement by Ralph Vaughan Williams is sumptuous and yearning. Samuel Barber wrote his Adagio for Strings in , apparently inspired by the idea of a stream growing in size to a full river. However, it quickly became an anthem of mourning, especially in this choral version setting the words of the Agnus Dei.
Over one million never returned. Folk songs took on a particular importance in the early part of the century. Many composers set about collecting and setting down the large canon of songs from all around the British Isles. Popular songs from the music halls also seemed more stirring than a rather lack-lustre National Anthem. Our representative sample is a wordless setting of the Londonderry Air by Percy Grainger. Nimrod Borenstein is an Israeli-born composer who lives and trained in Britain.
His works are popularly performed here and abroad and are considered to belong to a New Consonant Music. This setting of Psalm explores the idea that wherever we go the hand of God will be there to guide us. The piece is broadly tonal although different voice parts can be in different keys simultaneously.
For much of the setting, the sopranos provide the melodic and lyrical line, while the lower voices build shifting textures from the sometimes disjunct words. He also makes use of words for rhythmic motion rather than meaning, however the overall journey from darkness to light is unmistakeable. Herbert Howells lived for ninety years but felt himself a composer out of his times. His style harks back to that exceptional period of English choral music, to Tallis and Weelkes, to the subtle swings of minor to major, to unexpected false relations resolving to glorious concordance.
In fact the modal swings between major and minor are intrinsic to the traditional English folksong and the musical revival of the twentieth century, thus making Howells very much a man of his times. Michael Higgins — piano. There is music in the air, music all around us, the world is full of it and you simply take as much as you require.
Sir Edward Elgar. Of all the arts, we have excelled in literature. Our flexible language wants to persuade and enlighten, to uplift and censure. There is an unbroken tradition of great English writers from medieval times to modern day. No other country can boast the heights of the King James Bible or Shakespeare and it is no coincidence that they go with you to your desert island.
In music and the visual arts however, we have some peaks and troughs. From the death of Henry Purcell to the birth of Edward Elgar, we were almost silent. Until Turner, Constable and Blake got to work, we were a blank canvas. The work of our great Tudor composers was generally less cluttered and ornamented than our southern European counterparts.
English and Dutch painters have generally reflected the cooler, gentler climate and landscape, which we still recognise today. Perhaps this love of our natural world around us, a land without extremes, meant that neither the contrived formality of Classicism nor the bolder temperament of Romanticism appealed to our northern phlegm.
Or perhaps we were just too busy taking over the world! And yet, many of our finest composers were, and indeed still are, slow to be performed regularly abroad. Most probably because each of them reflects, and reflects upon, that uniquely island character, which sets us apart in so many things. They choose the wistful, modal qualities of British folksong, images of our rolling hills and gentle streams, our birdsong and our freedoms.
They turn naturally to the poetry of our English heritage, with its easy rhythms and gentle consonants. Do they never get worked up? Oh yes, when it comes to notions of justice, pride and the reaching of goals, the grandeur comes through. And that renowned English wit can be found a-plenty in satirical dance forms and quipping rhythms.
William Mathias, as it happens, was Welsh. Born in Dyfed in , he studied in Wales and London, worked mostly in Bangor but regularly involved himself in the great choral festivals which gave birth to so much great work.
He set the eight songs from Shakespeare plays for mixed choir and piano for the third Cardiff Festival of Choirs in This concept is emphasised by the fact that the last song recalls some of the music of the first; both are winter poems. There is also a similarity of feeling between the settings of Full Fathom Five and Dirge from Cymbeline.
The piano part is integral to the whole helping to emphasis the different moods. Vaughan Williams frequently turned to the poetry of the American Walt Whitman as did so many English composers. He does not diminish the role of the mind or spirit but sees both mind and body as worthy of praise. Gerald Finzi wrote mostly works for voice or chorus but his clarinet and cello concertos are well-loved also.
His settings of Thomas Hardy poems are inspired. Many of the settings for mixed choir of poems by Robert Bridges are well-known individually. Tonight we perform the full set as intended. Each song sets a subtle mood from the text and makes full use of the natural rhythms of the words in defining the musical language. Several of the songs are through-composed, that is to say, they take their shape from the ongoing narrative of the text, but even in the songs with a verse structure, Finzi alters the repetitions each time to give a sense of travel through the poem.
From the Bavarian Highlands by Edward Elgar shows the good-humoured family man in fine form and makes a light-hearted finale. He and his wife Alice loved holidays in Southern Bavaria, where they frequently went with their circle of friends, many of whom found their way into his Enigma Variations. On their return, Alice wrote some folksongs in the style of Bavarian ones she had heard, which her husband amiably set with appropriately southern German music. Schubert, by his own admission, knew that his choral works lacked the masterstrokes of his illustrious forbears and decided to have lessons in counterpoint very late in life.
What is not in doubt is that both works have rightly held a firm place in the hearts of performers and audiences for around years. The two composers had much in common. Both were violinists and pianists of prodigious talent. Both were dominated by their fathers. Both remained poor for much of their lives, struggling for positions which would provide money and status. Both died in their early thirties of illnesses which still arouse some debate. Both left behind an enormous body of work, as if they knew that time was short.
More importantly, both inhabited a musical paradise, although they might not have thought so at the time. It has a very light orchestration with no violas and optional clarinets and trumpets, giving the whole a light and airy texture. Unusually, the Kyrie belongs primarily to the four soloists, with chorus merely providing punctuation and emphasis.
The light classical style is even more pronounced in the Gloria. This musical style possessed an overwhelming energy, exuberance and almost uncontainable excitement. The Credo, often the most solemn section of the Mass, is almost a dance. Schubert is best known for his tunes and so allows the soloist full measure in the Benedictus, which commonly in masses is in a slow duple time as here. This melody is perhaps unusual in its athleticism however.
The sombre basset horns over the plodding, brooding bass chords seem inseparable from our memory of the film Amadeus and all the myths surrounding this final work of the genius, cut down in in his 35th year. Yes, Mozart was troubled by the anonymous commissioner of the piece. Yes, as he approached death himself, he felt he was writing his own requiem. Yes, he died with the manuscript on his bed trying to give instructions about its completion.
It is also true that several lesser composers had a hand in completing what he had started and who continue to this day. But forget all of that. Whoever wrote what, when and why, this is a glorious and idiosyncratic work, by turns sumptuous and terrifyingly stark. It should be indulged, not analysed. For one thing, it is a work, whose three parts, take in the entire sweep of the traditions and beliefs of the Christian faith and follows the liturgical year: Part I- Prophecy of Salvation, the birth of Christ Jesus Advent, Christmas Part II- Crucifixion and Death Lent, Easter, Ascension, Pentecost Part III- Resurrection and the promise of eternal life for believers End of year and end of time The second reason for its recurrent popularity is that it is simply full of good tunes and rousing choruses, which enable us as Everyman to grasp something of the ineffable mysteries of these sacred texts and to go away feeling spiritually uplifted regardless of our beliefs and understandings.
Sara Kemsley. The Composers John Dowland was probably born in London but not much is known about his early life. Adam — Oh holy night Programme notes When the power of love overcomes the love of power, the world will know peace. Anon, on a car bumper sticker I tried searching for The Christmas Message on the internet to remind myself of the words of the first nowell to the shepherds more than 2, years ago.
Four Motets for the season of Christmas 1. Handel — Zadok the Priest Programme notes Parliaments and Ministers pass, but she abides in lifelong duty, and she is to them as the oak in the forest is to the annual harvest in the field. Programme Hugo Kelly — Magnificat J. Harris — Bring us, O Lord God Programme notes Music is the harmonious voice of creation; an echo of the invisible world.
However, the writing in A Ceremony of Carols is already masterful and entirely idiomatic. John Milton, Paradise Lost Keen readers of these notes will know from our last concert that Haydn wrote his masterwork The Creation late in his life. Day One — Let there be light Into this primordial state comes the still, small voice of Raphael hardly daring to interrupt in case, in doing so, the spark of life is snuffed out before it truly begins.
Day Two — Firmament, water, sky In this short section, Raphael recites the creation of land and sea and gives the very first weather report. Day Four — Day and night; sun, moon and stars This section is opened in accompanied recitative by the tenor, Uriel, who describes how day and night are characterised by sun, moon and stars. PART TWO Day Five — Birds and whales, all living creatures Now that living creatures start to appear, Haydn can turn to his experience of writing opera and to make full use of the dexterous soprano voices of the day.
Napoleon Bonaparte If you peruse the quotations of Napoleon Bonaparte, they are invariably short, pithy and cynical. For one thing, it is a work whose three parts take in the entire sweep of the traditions and beliefs of the Christian faith: Part One — Prophecy of Salvation, the birth of Christ Jesus Part Two — Crucifixion and Death Part Three — Resurrection and the promise of eternal life for believers A complete performance requires nearly three hours and therefore it is common to hear cut versions, particularly those around Christmas time, which focus on Part I with other good bits thrown in.
The choral sections are unaccompanied meditations using well-known latin texts: O magnum mysterium — O great mystery Universi, universi — Lord, let none who await you be ashamed Ave Maria — Hail mary, full of grace Magnificat — My soul magnifies the Lord and my spirit rejoices in God my saviour Puer natus est — A child is born to us and a son is given Gloria in excelsis — Glory to God in the highest and peace on earth Quem vidistis?
Nunc dimittis — Lord, now lettest thy servant depart in peace It is perhaps telling that the only times the organ and choir come together is for the words Gloria Patri et Filio Sancto — Glory be to the Father, the Son and to the Holy Ghost: As it was in the beginning, is now and ever shall be, world without end, Amen. Our second half begins with three: Hark how all the welkin rings arranged by Thomas Butts using words by Charles Wesley.
Happy Christmas! If this is skin, then it is skin with an itch: to be or not to be… Sara Kemsley. But it is the wondrous chorales that are the voice of the Lutheran church-goers, who must participate in and accept their part in the story as it unfolds: Who hath thee now so stricken, My Saviour, and with torments. Sir Edward Elgar Of all the arts, we have excelled in literature. So this is the fertile soil from which our concert springs.
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|Forbidden fruit j cole instrumental torrent||Whoever wrote what, when and why, this is a glorious and idiosyncratic work, by turns sumptuous and terrifyingly stark. First two days of Company Week where musicians came together for five days improvisation - most of them meeting for the first time. Even Queen Anne gave us chairs! O magnum mysterium, et admirabile click here, O great mystery and wondrous sacrament, Ut animalia viderunt Dominum natum, jacentem in praesepio! Second in a series of two previously unreleased soundtracks Henning Christiansen made for the films made by his partner and collaborator Ursula Reuter Christiansen. His style harks back to that exceptional period of English choral music, to Tallis and Weelkes, to the subtle swings of minor to major, to unexpected false relations resolving to glorious concordance.|
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|Forbidden fruit j cole instrumental torrent||The second reason for its recurrent popularity is that it is simply full of good tunes and rousing choruses, which enable us as Everyman to grasp something of the ineffable mysteries of these sacred texts and to go away feeling spiritually uplifted regardless of our beliefs and understandings. Talib Kweli - Pretty Bird feat. In time, this third voice was split into chorus and soloists to take named roles. Most probably because each of them reflects, and reflects upon, that uniquely island character, which sets us apart in so many things. They choose the wistful, modal qualities of British folksong, images of our rolling hills and gentle streams, our birdsong and our freedoms.|
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