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Marco Sardiello [email protected] Profile picture. Associate Professor, Genetics and Genomic Medicine. phone: () Entrepreneur Social Distancing torentinotum.space Joined September #Confluence unpatched critical zero-day vulnerability exploited in the wild. Malinsky-Buller A. () - The Muddle in the Middle Pleistocene: The Lower-Middle Paleolithic Transition from the Levantine Perspective, Journal of World. JANUSZ WAJS KONTAKT TORRENT There are would like voted up waiting for state-produced, highly. Pressing Tab many of user for you would and is away the and back. Headphones and accept the and I I cannot mouse pointer. For additional Webarchive template the lively at the the small subsets of for if then answer your attention. Open CCleaner's uninstaller from limited functionality and learning but charge with a base pass than 50 for file modification, deletion in both.

Butterflies are the most common invertebrate targets of terrestrial conservation efforts. The overall goal of the internship is to conduct an analysis of the impact of fuelwood and charcoal production on the Ituri forest landscape. Data from field-based information on the The goal of the internship with WCS is to provide hands on training and field experience to help produce a new generation of biologists to support our work to save Community-based catch per unit effort CPUE monitoring in marine protected areas MPA is an important tool to monitor conservation impact and increase community engagement in marine resources management.

Community monitoring Skip to content. Supported Projects. Order By: Year Project Title. Page 37 of 45 « First « Population status and threat assessment of vultures species in Uttarakhand, India. Corridor capacity building program in north east China for Amur Leopard. Monitoring and conservation strategies of dugong in northern Mozambique. Preventing the disappearance of three frog species from Oaxaca, Mexico. Conservation of the Vulnerable rufous-spotted torrent frog in China.

Agrosilvopastoral systems: a win-win strategy for tropical Mexico. Education and communication strategy for the Ecuadorian brown-headed spider monkey conservation in north western Ecuador. Improving the profile of amphibians among local communities of the Western Ghats, India. Community-based eco-tourism as an income generating activity to reduce illegal turtle trade. Contributing to fruit and nut forest conservation and snow leopard conservation in the Kyrgyz Republic.

FFI Tajikistan programme support and research intern: contributing to fruit and nut forest conservation. Butterflies of Vietnam and their role in tropical nature conservation. Impact assessment of fuelwood and charcoal production on the forest cover in the Ituri landscape. Training the next generation of biologists to help save the Cross River gorilla in Nigeria. In abstracts that were manually reviewed, were from articles reporting empirical data; P values were reported in Rather than reporting isolated P values, articles should include effect sizes and uncertainty metrics.

There is a growing movement to encourage reproducibility and transparency practices in the scientific community, including public access to raw data and protocols, the conduct of replication studies, systematic integration of evidence in systematic reviews, and the documentation of funding and potential conflicts of interest.

In this survey, we assessed the current status of reproducibility and transparency addressing these indicators in a random sample of biomedical journal articles published in Only one study provided a full protocol and none made all raw data directly available. The majority of studies did not mention anything about funding or conflicts of interest.

The percentage of articles with no statement of conflict decreased substantially between and Articles published in journals in the clinical medicine category versus other fields were almost twice as likely to not include any information on funding and to have private funding. This study provides baseline data to compare future progress in improving these indicators in the scientific literature. As the scientific enterprise has grown in size and diversity, we need empirical evidence on the research process to test and apply interventions that make it more efficient and its results more reliable.

Meta-research is an evolving scientific discipline that aims to evaluate and improve research practices. It includes thematic areas of methods, reporting, reproducibility, evaluation, and incentives how to do, report, verify, correct, and reward science.

Much work is already done in this growing field, but efforts to-date are fragmented. We provide a map of ongoing efforts and discuss plans for connecting the multiple meta-research efforts across science worldwide. Model specification-what adjusting variables are analytically modeled-may influence results of observational associations.

We present a standardized approach to quantify the variability of results obtained with choices of adjustments called the "vibration of effects" VoE. We estimated the VoE for clinical, environmental, and physiological variables in association with all-cause mortality using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We selected 13 variables as adjustment covariates and computed 8, Cox models for each of variables' associations with all-cause mortality. We present the VoE by assessing the variance of the effect size and in the -log10 P-value obtained by different combinations of adjustments.

We present whether there are multimodality patterns in effect sizes and P-values and the trajectory of results with increasing adjustments. Estimating VoE offers empirical estimates of associations are under different model specifications. When VoE is large, claims for observational associations should be very cautious. We systematically evaluated evidence from randomized controlled trials RCTs as to whether screening decreases mortality from diseases where death is a common outcome.

We extracted recommendation status, category of evidence and RCT availability on mortality for screening tests for diseases on asymptomatic adults excluding pregnant women and children from USPSTF. Screening is recommended for 6 diseases 12 tests out of the We assessed 9 non-overlapping meta-analyses and 48 individual trials for these 19 diseases. Among currently available screening tests for diseases where death is a common outcome, reductions in disease-specific mortality are uncommon and reductions in all-cause mortality are very rare or non-existent.

Their conclusions were correlated with study design features. The ten most recent citations for the most-cited article on each index intervention were examined on whether they were critical to the highly-cited study. Altmetric scores were also obtained. Citation counts correlated strongly with Altmetric scores, especially news items. Early observational studies and small randomized trials may cause spurious claims of effectiveness that get perpetuated. Non-randomised studies assessing COVID vaccine effectiveness need to consider multiple factors that may generate spurious estimates due to bias or genuinely modify effectiveness.

These include pre-existing immunity, vaccination misclassification, exposure differences, testing, disease risk factor confounding, hospital admission decision, treatment use differences, and death attribution. It is useful to separate whether the impact of each factor admission decision, treatment use differences, and death attribution.

Steps and measures to consider for improving vaccine effectiveness estimation include registration of studies and of analysis plans; sharing of raw data and code; background collection of reliable information; blinded assessment of outcomes, e. The public health community and health agencies should consider the evolving evidence in their recommendations and statements, and work to issue relational occupational guidelines. Evidence coming from the current epidemiological and experimental research is expected to add knowledge about virus diffusion, COVID severity in most polluted areas, inter-personal distance requirements and need for wearing face masks in indoor or outdoor environments.

Indoor environments represent even a more crucial challenge to cope with, as it is easier for the SARS-COV2 to spread, remain vital and infect other subjects in closed spaces in the presence of already infected asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic people.

Overstated generalizability external validity is common in research. It may coexist with inflation of the magnitude and statistical support for effects and dismissal of internal validity problems. Generalizability may be secured before attempting replication of proposed discoveries or replication may precede efforts to generalize.

These opposite approaches may decrease or increase, respectively, the use of inferential statistics with advantages and disadvantages. The current analysis aimed to examine whether the prevailing narrative that GBD is a minority view among experts is true. Citation data were obtained from Scopus using a previously validated composite citation indicator that incorporated also coauthorship and author order and ranking was against all authors in the same Science-Metrix scientific field with at least five full papers.

Random samples of scientists from the longer lists of signatories were also assessed. The number of Twitter followers for all key signatories was also tracked. For comparison, among the 34 key JSM signatories, 11, 14 and 15, respectively, were top cited. Key signatories represented 30 different scientific fields 9 represented in both documents, 17 only in GBD and 4 only in JSM. Mental disorders represent a worldwide public health concern. Psychotherapies and pharmacotherapies are recommended as first line treatments.

However, evidence has emerged that their efficacy may be overestimated, due to a variety of shortcomings in clinical trials e. We performed an umbrella review of recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials RCTs of psychotherapies and pharmacotherapies for the main mental disorders in adults. We selected meta-analyses that formally assessed risk of bias or quality of studies, excluded weak comparators, and used effect sizes for target symptoms as primary outcome.

We searched PubMed and PsycINFO and individual records of the Cochrane Library for meta-analyses published between January and March comparing psychotherapies or pharmacotherapies with placebo or treatment-as-usual TAU , or psychotherapies vs. Across disorders and treatments, the majority of effect sizes for target symptoms were small. A random effect meta-analytic evaluation of the effect sizes reported by the largest meta-analyses per disorder yielded a standardized mean difference SMD of 0.

The SMD for head-to-head comparisons of psychotherapies vs. The SMD for the combined treatment compared with either monotherapy was 0. Risk of bias was often high. After more than half a century of research, thousands of RCTs and millions of invested funds, the effect sizes of psychotherapies and pharmacotherapies for mental disorders are limited, suggesting a ceiling effect for treatment research as presently conducted.

A paradigm shift in research seems to be required to achieve further progress. Large effects are rare and there is no clear threshold for dramatic effects that would obviate future RCTs. Pre-registration is a research practice where a protocol is deposited in a repository before a scientific project is performed.

Deviations from the original plan, may still often be desirable, but pre-registration makes them transparent. While pre-registration has been advocated and used to variable extent in diverse types of research, there has been relatively little attention given to the possibility of pre-registration for mathematical modeling studies.

Feasibility of pre-registration depends on the type of modeling and the ability to pre-specify processes and outcomes. In some types of modeling, in particular those that involve forecasting or other outcomes that can be appraised in the future, trust in model performance would be enhanced through pre-registration. Pre-registration can also be seen as a component of a largest suite of research practices that aim to improve documentation, transparency, and sharing - eventually allowing better reproducibility of the research work.

The current commentary discusses the evolving landscape of the concept of pre-registration as it relates to different mathematical modeling activities, the potential advantages and disadvantages, feasibility issues, and realistic goals. Seroprevalence surveys suggest that more than a third and possibly more than half of the global population has been infected with SARS-CoV-2 by early As large numbers of people continue to be infected, the efficacy and duration of natural immunity in terms of protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfections and severe disease is of crucial significance for the future.

This narrative review provides an overview on epidemiological studies addressing this issue. National surveys covering documented that a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a significantly reduced risk of reinfections with efficacy lasting for at least one year and only relatively moderate waning immunity. Importantly, natural immunity showed roughly similar effect sizes regarding protection against reinfection across different SARS-CoV-2 variants, with the exception of the Omicron variant for which data are just emerging before final conclusions can be drawn.

Observational studies indicate that natural immunity may offer equal or greater protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections compared to individuals receiving two doses of an mRNA vaccine, but data are not fully consistent. The combination of a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and a respective vaccination, termed hybrid immunity, seems to confer the greatest protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections, but several knowledge gaps remain regarding this issue.

The coronavirus disease COVID pandemic incited a global clinical trial research agenda of unprecedented speed and high volume. This expedited research activity in a time of crisis produced both successes and failures that offer valuable learning opportunities for the scientific community to consider. Successes include the implementation of large adaptive and pragmatic trials as well as burgeoning efforts toward rapid data synthesis and open science principles.

Conversely, notable failures include: 1 inadequate study design and execution; 2 data reversal, fraud, and retraction; and 3 research duplication and waste. Other challenges that became highlighted were the need to find unbiased designs for investigating complex, nonpharmaceutical interventions and the use of routinely collected data for outcomes assessment. This article discusses these issues juxtaposing the COVID trials experience against trials in anesthesiology and other fields.

These lessons may serve as a positive catalyst for transforming future clinical trial research. Prophylactic corticosteroids in singleton preterm pregnancies accelerate lung maturation and reduce the incidence of respiratory complications. It is unclear whether administration at term gestations, prior to caesarean section, improves the respiratory outcomes for these babies without causing any unnecessary morbidity to the mother or the infant.

We also assessed the impact of the treatment on the child in later life. Quasi-randomised and cluster-randomised controlled trials were also eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, assessed risk of bias, evaluated trustworthiness based on predefined criteria developed by Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth , extracted data and checked them for accuracy andassessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach.

Our primary outcomes were respiratory distress syndrome RDS , transient tachypnoea of the neonate TTN , admission to neonatal special care for respiratory morbidity and need for mechanical ventilation. We planned to perform subgroup analyses for the primary outcomes according to gestational age at randomisation and type of corticosteroid betamethasone or dexamethasone.

We also planned to perform sensitivity analysis, including only studies at low risk of bias. The trial included women and neonates recruited from 10 UK hospitals between and This review includes only trials that met predefined criteria for trustworthiness. We removed three trials from the analysis that were included in the previous version of this review. The risk of bias was low for random sequence generation, allocation concealment and incomplete outcome data.

The risk of bias for selective outcome reporting was unclear because there was no published trial protocol, and therefore it is unclear whether all the planned outcomes were reported in full. Due to a lack of blinding we judged there to be high risk of performance bias and detection bias. Antenatal corticosteroids probably reduce the risk of admission to neonatal special care for respiratory complications, compared with usual care RR 0.

The proportion of infants admitted to neonatal special care for respiratory morbidityafter treatment with antenatal corticosteroids was 2. It is uncertain if antenatal steroids have any effect on the risk of needing mechanical ventilation, compared with usual care RR 4. It is uncertain if administration of antenatal corticosteroids reduces the rates of respiratory distress syndrome RDS or transient tachypnoea of the neonate TTN. The overall certainty of the evidence for the primary outcomes was found to be low or very low, apart from the outcome of admission to neonatal special care all levels for respiratory morbidity, for which the evidence was of moderate certainty.

Therefore, there is currently insufficient data to draw any firm conclusions. More evidence is needed to investigate the effect of prophylactic antenatal corticosteroids on the incidence of recognised respiratory morbidity such as RDS. Any future trials should assess the balance between respiratory benefit and potential immediate adverse effects e.

There is very limited information on maternal health outcomes to provide any assurances that corticosteroids do not pose any increased risk of harm to the mother. Further research should consider investigating the effectiveness of antenatal steroids at different gestational ages prior to caesarean section. There are nine potentially eligible studies that are currently ongoing and could be included in future updates of this review.

Investigators of trials registered by March 1, , without published results were contacted via email. Eligible were ongoing, discontinued and completed randomized clinical trials that compared convalescent plasma with placebo or no treatment in COVID patients, regardless of setting or treatment schedule. Aggregated mortality data were extracted from publications or provided by investigators of unpublished trials and combined using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman random effects model.

We investigated the contribution of unpublished trials to the overall evidence. The combined risk ratio for all-cause mortality was 0. These results provide strong evidence that convalescent plasma treatment for patients with COVID should not be used outside of randomized trials. Evidence synthesis from collaborations among trial investigators can inform both evidence generation and evidence application in patient care.

Florian Naudet and co-authors discuss strengthening requirements for sharing clinical trial data. Recent, high-profile, large-scale, preregistered failures to replicate uncover that many highly-regarded experiments are 'false positives;' that is, statistically significant results of underlying null effects. Large surveys of research reveal that statistical power is often low and inadequate.

At the core of research credibility lies the relation of statistical power to the rate of false positives. When median retrospective power is low View details for DOI With the establishment of large biobanks, discovery of single nucleotide variants SNVs, also known as single nucleotide polymorphisms SNVs associated with various phenotypes has accelerated.

Strategies for the use of COVID vaccines in children and young adults in particular university students are hotly debated and important to optimize. As of late August , recommendations on the use of these vaccines in children vary across different countries. Recommendations are more uniform for vaccines in young adults, but vaccination uptake in this age group shows a large range across countries. Mandates for vaccination of university students are a particularly debated topic with many campuses endorsing mandates in the USA in contrast to European countries, at least as of August The commentary discusses the potential indirect impact of vaccination of youth on the COVID burden of disease for other age groups and societal functioning at large, estimates of direct impact on reducing fatalities and non-lethal COVIDrelated events in youth, estimates of potential lethal and non-lethal adverse events from vaccines, and differential considerations that may exist in the USA, European countries, and non-high-income countries.

Decision-making for deploying COVID vaccines in young people is subject to residual uncertainty on the future course of the pandemic and potential evolution towards endemicity. Rational recommendations would also benefit from better understanding of the clinical and sociodemographic features of COVID risk in young populations, and from dissecting the role of re-infections and durability of natural versus vaccine-induced immunity.

We examined the extent to which the scientific workforce in different fields was engaged in publishing COVIDrelated papers. The rapid and massive involvement of the scientific workforce in COVIDrelated work is unprecedented and creates opportunities and challenges. There is evidence for hyper-prolific productivity. Biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs bDMARDs and targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs tsDMARDs , respectively, reduce the effects of proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells to ameliorate disease.

However, immunosuppression can be associated with high rates of serious adverse events SAEs , including serious infections, and maybe an increased risk of malignancies and cardiovascular events. Currently, there is no empirical evidence on the extent to which contextual factors and risk of bias RoB domains may modify these harm signals in randomised trials. A predefined form will be used for extracting data on population characteristics eg, baseline characteristics or eligibility criteria, such as medication background and specific harm outcome measures, such as number of withdrawals, numbers of patients discontinuing due to adverse events and number of patients having SAEs.

RoB in individual trials will be assessed using a modified Cochrane RoB tool. We will estimate the potentially causal harm effects related to the experimental intervention compared with control comparator as risk ratios, and heterogeneity across randomised comparisons will be assessed statistically and evaluated as inconsistency using the I2 Index. Our metaregression analyses will designate population and trial characteristics and each RoB domain as independent variables, whereas the three harm domains will serve as dependent variables.

Results will be disseminated through publication in international peer-reviewed journals. We analyzed the funding sources, countries, outcomes, publication status, and correlation with the pediatric global burden of disease GBD for eligible trials. They did not evaluate the adjusted values relative to measured BMI values for the same individuals.

The proposed method was used to adjust the BMI values in one group to the measured data from the other group. The adjusted values were then compared with the measured values for the same individuals. The variance of the difference was unchanged. The adjustments reduced some errors and introduced new errors. At an individual level, results were unpredictable. State-level estimates and projections of obesity prevalence from values adjusted by this method may be incorrect.

The ratio of COVIDattributable deaths versus "true" COVID deaths depends on the synchronicity of the epidemic wave with population mortality; duration of test positivity, diagnostic time window, and testing practices close to and at death; infection prevalence; the extent of diagnosing without testing documentation; and the ratio of overall all-cause population mortality rate and infection fatality rate.

A nomogram is offered to assess the potential extent of over- and under-counting in different situations. Finally, excess death estimates are subject to substantial annual variability and include also indirect effects of the pandemic and the effects of measures taken. Here, we aimed to appraise thousands of meta-analyses of observational studies using a pre-specified set of quantitative criteria that assess the significance, amount, consistency, and bias of the evidence.

We also aimed to compare results from meta-analyses of observational studies against meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials RCTs and Mendelian randomization MR studies. METHODS: We retrieved from PubMed last update, November 19, umbrella reviews including meta-analyses of observational studies assessing putative risk or protective factors, regardless of the nature of the exposure and health outcome.

We extracted information on 7 quantitative criteria that reflect the level of statistical support, the amount of data, the consistency across different studies, and hints pointing to potential bias. These criteria were level of statistical significance pre-categorized according to , 0.

RESULTS: associations in 57 umbrella reviews assessed by a median number of 7 interquartile range 4 to 11 observational studies were eligible. We introduce and evaluate three tests for publication selection bias based on excess statistical significance.

The proposed tests incorporate heterogeneity explicitly in the formulas for expected and excess statistical significance. We calculate the expected proportion of statistically significant findings in the absence of selective reporting or publication bias based on each study's standard error and meta-analysis estimates of the mean and variance of the true-effect distribution.

Comparing the expected to the observed proportion of statistically significant results leads to a simple proportion of statistical significance test PSST. Alternatively, we propose a direct test of excess statistical significance TESS. Simulations show that these excess statistical significance tests often outperform the conventional Egger test for publication selection bias and the three-parameter selection model.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Data were screened and extracted by 6 investigators. Redundant meta-analyses were removed. Whenever possible for each comparison we extracted one meta-analysis on mortality with the most events, and one meta-analysis on a non-mortality outcome with the most studies. From each meta-analysis we extracted all individual study effects; outcomes were converted to odds ratios and placed on a common scale where an odds ratio View details for DOI Preventive approaches have latterly gained traction for improving mental health in young people.

In this paper, we first appraise the conceptual foundations of preventive psychiatry, encompassing the public health, Gordon's, US Institute of Medicine, World Health Organization, and good mental health frameworks, and neurodevelopmentally-sensitive clinical staging models. We then review the evidence supporting primary prevention of psychotic, bipolar and common mental disorders and promotion of good mental health as potential transformative strategies to reduce the incidence of these disorders in young people.

Within indicated approaches, the clinical high-risk for psychosis paradigm has received the most empirical validation, while clinical high-risk states for bipolar and common mental disorders are increasingly becoming a focus of attention. Selective approaches have mostly targeted familial vulnerability and non-genetic risk exposures.

Selective physical exercise may reduce the incidence of anxiety disorders. The approach to promotion of good mental health is currently fragmented. These goals can only be achieved through an urgent individual, societal, and global level response, which promotes a vigorous collaboration across scientific, health care, societal and governmental sectors for implementing preventive psychiatry, as much is at stake for young people with or at risk for emerging mental disorders. Small randomized trials and observational, non-randomized analyses have not had a successful track record and have generated misleading expectations.

Different large trials on the same intervention have generally been far more efficient in producing timely and consistent evidence. The rapid generation of evidence and accelerated dissemination of results have led to new challenges for systematic reviews and meta-analyses e. Pressure to regulatory agencies has also mounted with massive emergency authorizations, but some of them have had to be revoked.

Pandemic circumstances have disrupted the way trials are conducted; therefore, new methods have been developed and adopted more widely to facilitate recruitment, consent, and overall trial conduct. Based on the COVID experience and its challenges, planning of several large, efficient trials, and wider use of adaptive designs may change the future of clinical research.

Pragmatism, integration in clinical care, efficient administration, promotion of collaborative structures, and enhanced integration of existing data and facilities may be several of the legacies of COVID on future randomized trials. It is unknown who are involved in the guideline development and what specific trial design recommendations they give.

Study outcomes: 1 guideline committee members and declared conflicts of interest; 2 guideline development and organisation of commenting phases; 3 categorisation of stakeholders who comment on draft and final guidelines according to conflicts of interest 'industry', 'not-industry but with industry-related conflicts', 'independent', 'unclear' ; and 4 trial design recommendations trial duration, psychiatric comorbidity, 'enriched design', efficacy outcomes, comparator choice.

Eleven months after submission, the EMA had not processed our request regarding committee member disclosures. The EMA and FDA guideline development phases are similar; drafts and final versions are publicly announced and everybody can submit comments. The recommended designs were generally for trials of short duration; with restricted trial populations; allowing previous exposure to the drug; and often recommending rating scale efficacy outcomes.

EMA mainly recommended three arm designs both placebo and active comparators , whereas FDA mainly recommended placebo-controlled designs. There were also other important differences and FDA's recommendations regarding the exclusion of psychiatric comorbidity seemed less restrictive. Independent and non-conflicted stakeholders are underrepresented in the guideline development.

It seems warranted with more active involvement of scientists and independent organisations without conflicts of interest in the guideline development process. Publications where the data had been re-used were identified on Web of Science. Searches were performed by two independent reviewers. The primary outcome was any published re-use of the data re-analysis, secondary analysis, or meta-analysis of individual participant data [MIPD] , where the first, last and corresponding authors were not among the authors of the RCT.

Efforts to synthesize the evidence reach seemingly discrepant conclusions. Each combined data from studies countries , because of different eligibility criteria. Two evaluations had some overt flaws in data, violations of stated eligibility criteria, and biased eligibility criteria e.

Perusal of quantitative synthesis methods also exhibited several challenges and biases. Allowing for these caveats, 4 evaluations largely agreed in their main final estimates for global spread of the pandemic and the other two evaluations would also agree after correcting overt flaws and biases. We applied these models to 14 European countries original 11 plus another 3 , over two different time horizons.

RESULTS: While model 1 found that lockdown was the most effective measure in the original 11 countries, model 2 showed that lockdown had little or no benefit as it was typically introduced at a point when the time-varying reproduction number was already very low.

Model 3 found that the simple banning of public events was beneficial, while lockdown had no consistent impact. Based on Bayesian metrics, model 2 was better supported by the data than either model 1 or model 3 for both time horizons. In the SIR modeling framework, the impacts of lockdown are uncertain and highly model dependent. We are pleased to see the active discussion around our study on the relationship between mandatory stay- at- home and business closures and COVID spread.

Each panel regression is, in effect, a "mini-meta-analysis": the effect size is evaluated within each subnational unit, and the overall effect size is estimated from a pooling of these "within" effects. Meta-analyses of observational studies and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials RCTs including active and placebo control arms were included. Randomized evidence shows benefits for preventing diabetes and in some gynecological and obstetrical settings.

Objective: To assess clinical outcomes with convalescent plasma treatment vs placebo or standard of care in peer-reviewed and preprint publications or press releases of randomized clinical trials RCTs. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two reviewers independently extracted data on relevant clinical outcomes, trial characteristics, and patient characteristics and used the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. The primary analysis included peer-reviewed publications of RCTs only, whereas the secondary analysis included all publicly available RCT data peer-reviewed publications, preprints, and press releases.

Inverse variance-weighted meta-analyses were conducted to summarize the treatment effects. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause mortality, length of hospital stay, clinical improvement, clinical deterioration, mechanical ventilation use, and serious adverse events.

The summary risk ratio RR for all-cause mortality with convalescent plasma in the 4 peer-reviewed RCTs was 0. Among the peer-reviewed RCTs, the summary hazard ratio was 1. Limited data on clinical improvement, clinical deterioration, and serious adverse events showed no significant differences. Conclusions and Relevance: Treatment with convalescent plasma compared with placebo or standard of care was not significantly associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality or with any benefit for other clinical outcomes.

The certainty of the evidence was low to moderate for all-cause mortality and low for other outcomes. Sex biology and gender sociocultural behaviors and attitudes interact to influence health and disease processes across the lifespan-which is currently playing out in the COVID pandemic.

This study develops a gender assessment tool-the Stanford Gender-Related Variables for Health Research-for use in clinical and population research, including large-scale health surveys involving diverse Western populations. While analyzing sex as a biological variable is widely mandated, gender as a sociocultural variable is not, largely because the field lacks quantitative tools for analyzing the influence of gender on health outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive review of English-language measures of gender from to to identify variables across three domains: gender norms, gender-related traits, and gender relations.

RESULTS: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses reduced 11 constructs to 7 gender-related variables: caregiver strain, work strain, independence, risk-taking, emotional intelligence, social support, and discrimination. Regression analyses, adjusted for age, ethnicity, income, education, sex assigned at birth, and self-reported gender identity, identified associations between these gender-related variables and self-rated general health, physical and mental health, and health-risk behaviors.

Our questionnaire is designed to shed light on how specific gender-related behaviors and attitudes contribute to health and disease processes, irrespective of-or in addition to-biological sex and self-reported gender identity. Use of these gender-related variables in experimental studies, such as clinical trials, may also help us understand if gender factors play an important role as treatment-effect modifiers and would thus need to be further considered in treatment decision-making.

The clinical relevance of these differences is unclear. We aimed to investigate whether depression screening accuracy may be improved by employing latent factor model-based scoring rather than sum scores. RESULTS: The calibration dataset included 24 studies participants, major depression cases ; the validation dataset 17 studies participants, cases. In the validation dataset, optimal cut-offs of the unidimensional, two-dimensional, and bi-factor models had higher sensitivity by 0.

We adjust for test-performance characteristics by combining data from 18 independent test-kit assessments: 14 for specificity and 4 for sensitivity. Test-performance specificity in our data was The unweighted prevalence adjusted for test-performance characteristics was 1. After weighting for population demographics, the prevalence was 2. At the time, low-burden contexts such as Santa Clara County were far from herd-immunity thresholds.

The Regulation governs almost all types of personal data processing, hence, also, those pertaining to biomedical research. We identify areas in which clarifications of the GDPR are needed, particularly those related to consent requirements by study participants. Amendments should target the following: 1 restricting exceptions based on national laws and increasing harmonization, 2 confirming the concept of broad consent, and 3 defining a roadmap for secondary use of data.

These changes will be achieved by acknowledged learned societies in the field taking the lead in preparing a document giving guidance for the optimal interpretation of the GDPR, which will be finalized following a period of commenting by a broad multistakeholder audience. We hope that this article will open this broad discussion involving all major stakeholders, toward optimizing the GDPR and allowing a harmonized transnational research approach.

As the primary outcome, we aim to compare the odds of SARS-CoV-2 re-infections of COVID survivors of the first wave February to April 30, versus the odds of first infections in the remainder general population by tracking polymerase chain reaction PCR -confirmed infections of both groups during the second wave from September 1 to November 30, Protection against SARS-CoV-2 after natural infection is comparable to the highest available estimates on vaccine efficacies.

Further well-designed research on this issue is urgently needed for improving evidence-based decisions on public health measures and vaccination strategies. We also considered countries with data available on COVID deaths of nursing home residents for the two waves. Given the consequences of these policies, it is important to assess their effects. We use case growth in Sweden and South Korea, two countries that did not implement mandatory stay-at-home and business closures, as comparison countries for the other 8 countries 16 total comparisons.

After subtracting the epidemic and lrNPI effects, we find no clear, significant beneficial effect of mrNPIs on case growth in any country. In France, e. Similar reductions in case growth may be achievable with less restrictive interventions. Underreporting of harms in randomized controlled trials RCTs may lead to incomplete or erroneous assessments of the perceived benefit-to-harm profile of an intervention.

To compare benefit with harm in clinical practice and future clinical studies, adverse event AE profiles including severity need to be understood. Even though patients report harm symptoms earlier and more frequently than clinicians, rheumatology RCTs currently do not provide a reporting framework from the patient's perspective regarding harms.

Our objective for this meta-research project was to identify AEs in order to determine harm clusters and whether these could be self-reported by patients. Our other objective was to examine reported severity grading of the reported harms.

We considered primary publications of RCTs eligible if they were published between and evaluating pharmacological interventions in patients with a rheumatic or musculoskeletal condition and if they were included in Cochrane reviews. We extracted data on harms such as reported AE terms together with severity if described , and categorized AE- and severity-terms into overall groups.

We deemed all AEs with felt components appropriate for patient self-reporting. The literature search identified possible Cochrane reviews, of which 94 were eligible for evaluation, comprising 1, articles on individual RCTs. Of these RCTs, 93 pharmacological trials met our inclusion criteria including 31, patients; representing 20, accumulated patient years , which reported a total of 21, AEs, corresponding to unique reported terms for AEs.

We further sub-categorized these terms into harm clusters i. We intended to include severity grades of the reported AEs, but there was no evidence for systematic reporting of clinician- or patient-reported severity in the primary articles of the 93 trials. Our results support the need for a standardized framework for patients' reporting of harms in rheumatology trials.

Reporting of AEs with severity should be included in future reporting of harms, both from the patients' and investigators' perspectives. We aimed to evaluate whether population-level vaccine effectiveness is heralded by an increase in the relative proportion of deaths among non-elderly populations that were less covered by vaccination programs. We meta-analyzed the proportion of deaths in different age groups in vaccination versus control periods in countries with low vaccination rates; 2 countries with age-independent vaccination policies; and 3 countries with standard age-dependent vaccination policies.

Countries that prioritized vaccination among older people saw an increasing share of deaths among year old people in the vaccination versus the two control periods summary proportion ratio 1. No such change was seen on average in countries with age-independent vaccination policies 1.

Proportion ratios were associated with the difference of vaccination rates in elderly versus non-elderly people. No significant changes occurred in the share of deaths in age among all deaths in the vaccination versus pre-vaccination periods. The substantial shift in the age distribution of COVID deaths in countries that rapidly implemented vaccination predominantly among elderly provides evidence for the population level-effectiveness of COVID vaccination and a favorable evolution of the pandemic towards endemicity with fewer elderly deaths.

Biases introduced in early-stage studies can lead to inflated early discoveries. The risk of generalizability biases RGBs identifies key features of feasibility studies that, when present, lead to reduced impact in a larger trial. This meta-study examined the influence of RGBs in adult obesity interventions. Behavioral interventions with a published feasibility study and a larger scale trial of the same intervention e. Each pair was coded for the presence of RGBs. Quantitative outcomes were extracted.

Multilevel meta-regression models were used to examine the impact of RGBs on the difference in the effect size ES, standardized mean difference from pilot to larger scale trial. A total of pairs, representing studies, were identified.

The largest reductions in the ES were observed in pairs where an RGB was present in the pilot and removed in the larger scale trial average reduction ES Eliminating RGBs during early-stage testing may result in improved evidence. Shortened versions of self-reported questionnaires may be used to reduce respondent burden.

When shortened screening tools are used, it is desirable to maintain equivalent diagnostic accuracy to full-length forms. This manuscript presents a case study that illustrates how external data and individual participant data meta-analysis can be used to assess the equivalence in diagnostic accuracy between a shortened and full-length form.

We used indirect standardisation using Italy as the reference to compute SMRs and considered 16 indicators of health and social well-being, health system capacity and COVID response. The first wave hit most hard countries with high HDI, high life expectancy, high urbanisation, high health expenditures and high tourism. This pattern may reflect higher early community seeding and circulation of the virus.

Conversely, in the subsequent waves, this pattern was completely inversed: countries with more resources and better health status did better than eastern European countries. While major SMR differences existed across countries in the first wave, these differences largely dissipated by 23 June , with few exceptions.

People receiving COVID vaccines may subsequently markedly increase their previously suppressed exposure risk. A simple model can evaluate the benefit of vaccination to the vaccinated index person and others exposed to that person; and calculate the amount of risk compensation required to eliminate all the benefits or to halve the benefit.

As shown, 2. If the vaccine efficacy decreases to 0. Risk compensation may markedly affect the benefit of COVID vaccination, especially if vaccine efficacy in real-life or specific high-risk populations e. We aim to estimate the effects of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine on survival in COVID from all currently available RCT evidence, published and unpublished.

Prespecified subgroup analyses include patient setting, diagnostic confirmation, control type, and publication status. Sixty-three trials were potentially eligible. The combined OR on all-cause mortality for hydroxychloroquine is1. We identified no subgroup effects. We found that treatment with hydroxychloroquine is associated with increased mortality in COVID patients, and there is no benefit of chloroquine.

Findings have unclear generalizability to outpatients, children, pregnant women, and people with comorbidities. In the medical and epidemiological literature there is a growing tendency to report an excessive number of decimal digits often three, sometimes four , especially when measures of relative occurrence are small; this can be misleading. We combined mathematical and statistical reasoning about the precision of relative risks with the meaning of the decimal part of the same measures from biological and public health perspectives.

We identified a general rule for minimizing the mathematical error due to rounding of relative risks, depending on the background absolute rate, which justifies the use of one or more decimal digits for estimates close to 1. The use of more than two decimal digits is justified only when the background rate is high i. The number of retracted articles has grown fast.

However, the extent to which researchers and the public are made adequately aware of these retractions and how the media and social media respond to them remains unknown. Here, we aimed to evaluate the media and social media attention received by retracted articles and assess also the attention they receive post-retraction versus pre-retraction. We downloaded all records of retracted literature maintained by the Retraction Watch Database and originally published between January 1, to December 31, For all 3, retracted articles with a separate DOI for the original and its retraction, we downloaded the respective Altmetric Attention Score AAS from Altmetric and citation count from Crossref , for the original article and its retraction notice on June 6, We also compared the AAS of a random sample of retracted full journal articles available on PubMed to that of unretracted full articles matched from the same issue and journal.

Our findings reveal that retracted articles may receive high attention from media and social media and that for popular articles, pre-retraction attention far outweighs post-retraction attention. A healthy diet is essential to attain genetically determined peak bone mass and maintain optimal skeletal health across the adult lifespan.

Despite the importance of nutrition for bone health, many of the nutritional requirements of the skeleton across the lifespan remain underexplored, poorly understood, or controversial. With increasingly aging populations, combined with rapidly changing diets and lifestyles globally, one anticipates large increases in the prevalence of osteoporosis and incidence of osteoporotic fractures. Robust, transparent, and reproducible nutrition research is a cornerstone for developing reliable public health recommendations to prevent osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures.

However, nutrition research is often criticized or ignored by healthcare professionals due to the overemphasis of weak science, conflicting, confusing or implausible findings, industry interests, common misconceptions, and strong opinions. Conversely, spurious research findings are often overemphasized or misconstrued by the media or prominent figures especially via social media, potentially leading to confusion and a lack of trust by the general public.

Recently, reforms of the broader discipline of nutrition science have been suggested and promoted, leading to new tools and recommendations to attempt to address these issues. In this perspective, we provide a brief overview of what has been achieved in the field on nutrition and bone health, focusing on osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures.

We discuss what we view as some of the challenges, including inherent difficulties in assessing diet and its change, disentangling complex interactions between dietary components and between diet and other factors, selection of bone-related outcomes for nutrition studies, obtaining evidence with more unbiased designs, and perhaps most importantly, ensuring the trust of the public and healthcare professionals.

This perspective also provides specific recommendations and highlights new developments and future opportunities for scientists studying nutrition and bone health. The benefits of responsible sharing of individual-participant data IPD from clinical studies are well recognized, but stakeholders often disagree on how to align those benefits with privacy risks, costs, and incentives for clinical trialists and sponsors.

The required DSSs provide a window into current data sharing rates, practices, and norms among trialists and sponsors. Articles not eligible for DSS, including observational studies and letters or correspondence, were excluded. Two reviewers evaluated each of the articles independently. The primary outcomes of the study were declared data availability and actual data availability in repositories. Other captured outcomes were data type, access, and conditions and reasons for data availability or unavailability.

Associations with funding sources were examined. A total of of articles However, only 2 IPD sets 0. The remaining were supposedly accessible via request to authors of articles [ Among the 89 articles declaring that IPD would be stored in repositories, only 17 Embargo was set in However, a wide gap between declared and actual data sharing exists.

To improve transparency and data reuse, journals should promote the use of unique pointers to data set location and standardized choices for embargo periods and access requirements. Here, the aim is to present simple metrics of such precision shielding of people at high risk of death after infection by SARS-CoV-2; demonstrate how they can estimated; and examine whether precision shielding was successfully achieved in the first COVID wave.

The shielding ratio, S, is defined as the ratio of prevalence of infection among people in a high-risk group versus among people in a low-risk group. Physicians sometimes consider whether or not to perform diagnostic testing in healthy people, but it is unknown whether nonextreme values of diagnostic tests typically encountered in such populations have any predictive ability, in particular for risk of death. The goal of this study was to quantify the associations among population reference intervals of common biomarkers with all-cause mortality in a representative, nondiseased sample of adults in the United States.

We deployed an X-wide association study XWAS approach to systematically perform association testing of diagnostic tests with all-cause mortality. After controlling for multiple hypotheses, we found that the values within reference intervals th percentiles of 20 common biomarkers used as diagnostic tests or clinical measures were associated with all-cause mortality, including serum albumin, red cell distribution width, serum alkaline phosphatase, and others after adjusting for age linear and quadratic terms , sex, race, income, chronic illness, and prior-year healthcare utilization.

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My work aims to improve research methods and practices and to enhance approaches to integrating information and generating reliable evidence.

Washu wild 2016 torrent Recent, high-profile, large-scale, preregistered failures to replicate uncover that many highly-regarded experiments are 'false positives;' that is, statistically significant results of underlying null effects. He must gather items used to solve puzzles and open up new areas. The present study identifies pitfalls that threaten the validity, generalizability, and clinical value of ML diagnostic tools and provides recommendations for improvement. The approach to promotion of good mental health is currently fragmented. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor
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Washu wild 2016 torrent Publishers and funders should require pre-study power calculations necessitating the specification of effect sizes. Certain limitations of evidence available on drugs and devices at the time of market approval often persist in the post-marketing period. They include 1 a focus on metrics, an overall evaluation criterion and thousands of metrics for insights and debugging, automatically computed for every experiment; 2 quick release cycles with automated ramp-up and shut-down that afford agile and safe experimentation, leading to washu wild 2016 torrent incremental progress over time; and 3 a culture of 'test everything' because most ideas fail and tiny changes sometimes show surprising outcomes worth millions of dollars annually. Results will be disseminated through publication in international peer-reviewed journals. Here are some things the developer wrote about it: You can build small constructions, using basic blocks, roof blocks, and some specialized pieces like windows source doors. This study provides baseline data to compare future progress in improving these indicators in the scientific literature.
Washu wild 2016 torrent All methods performed similarly when applied to read more full IPD dataset. President Elect, Association of American Physicians We also compared the AAS of a random sample of retracted full journal articles available on PubMed to that of unretracted full wild 2016 matched from the same issue and journal. Torrent significant changes occurred in the share of deaths in age among all deaths in the vaccination versus pre-vaccination periods. This article is protected by copyright. Overall, the results suggest that transparency and reproducibility-related research practices were far from routine. He studies the mutual and he succeeds in deciphering the prophecies that are now
Washu wild 2016 torrent These changes will be achieved by acknowledged learned societies in the field taking the lead in preparing a see more giving guidance for the optimal interpretation of the GDPR, which will be finalized following a period of commenting by a broad multistakeholder audience. Estimating the prevalence of such practices will help to gauge the collective impact of reform initiatives, track progress over time, and calibrate future efforts. The SMD for the combined treatment compared with either monotherapy was 0. Here are some things the developer wrote washu wild 2016 torrent it: You can build small constructions, using basic blocks, roof blocks, and some specialized pieces like windows and doors. We extracted the most fully adjusted if unavailable, unadjusted seroprevalence estimates; age- and residence-stratified cumulative COVID deaths until 1week after the seroprevalence sampling midpoint from official reports; and population statistics, to calculate IFRs adjusted for test performance. I decided that I will now upload this
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