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The most prominent one in the feature film is that of Angel Chao and Carmen, which develops from courtship to imprisonment. Based on photographs of the film that have survived, at least two other romances were depicted, including that of Santiago Risco and an unnamed woman, who has a child by him.
This is the couple who are married in jail just before Risco is executed. The other relationship involves Ernestina, a woman kidnapped by the gang in an early sequence. Before the action of the film begins, she has fallen in love with a man named Oviedo; only after she is kidnapped by the bandits does she discover that Oviedo is a member of la banda.
Adding more complexity to the narrative is the use of the motivated flashback. For instance, in an early sequence, the gang returns to their hideout with the booty from their latest robbery. The gang take their loyalty oath; Granda is in the center.
Courtesy of the Agrasanchez Archive of Mexican Cinema. At the behest of the bandit who guards Ernestina, Granada relates the adventure, which the film depicts via a flashback. In sum, these elements produce an eloquent narrative that is complex but economical, rich in texture, detail and nuance. Causality The narrative proceeds by rough causal linkages, as one crime leads to the next, and as the detectives and a victim, Don Vicente Gonzalez, join forces to pursue and capture the bandits.
For the most part the narrative develops clearly and classically—shot by shot, scene by scene, one well-elaborated causal link at a time. Characterization The film's most complex characters are the bandits; their pursuers, Vicente Gonzalez and Inspector Cabrera, remain one-dimensional good guys.
As the scene proceeds, there eventually is a medium close-up MCU or close-up CU , usually of one key character as he or she speaks or notices something. Scenes may end there or add a coda: a medium shot MS detail of some kind.
A good example is a sequence of five shots in a police detective's office. A very long take that begins with Granada's assistant alone in the room, rifling through the detective's desk. Using his key to open a drawer, he takes out several sheets, and he stamps them with a seal from the desktop.
Granada enters and sends the accomplice out, and the detective, Gonzalez, and other agents enter. As Gonzalez displays some papers, he surveys the men in the room. Granada takes out his pistol, but Gonzalez strikes his arm and the shot is wild. The other agents hold Granada while Gonzalez explains that he is one of the bandits fig.
Exterior sequences exhibit a similar analytical editing pattern. An example is the sequence that a reviewer at the time called "the best scene in the film,"38 in which Vicente Gonzalez happens to spot one of the bandits, Rubio Navarrete, walking behind him on a sidewalk: SHOT [:n] LS—Gonzalez walks along the sidewalk toward the camera. Glancing back, he notices Navarrete and stops and hides behind a wall at a corner.
Shot Vicente Gonzalez struggles with Granda in the police inspector's office. As Navarrete passes by, Gonzalez, pistol in hand, confronts him. The two struggle and fight. When Navarrete tries to escape, Gonzalez shoots him. Navarrete falls to the ground. From experience, and probably from the study of U. And Rosas the cinematographer provided Rosas the editor with an appropriate array of shots to present a clear, coherent, and comprehensible film narrative.
But even when screen direction is reversed from one shot to the next, it is seldom disorienting, because common elements help link shots across a cut. Consider the example of shots and , of four bandits approaching the Martel house. In shot , they walk at an angle toward the camera, screen right to left, and clear the frame.
In shot , they are walking in the opposite direction—screen left to right—but the common subject the same four bandits and the continued motion walking along the street at the same pace is enough to confirm for the viewer that these are the same characters in the same location in contemporaneous time. Eyeline Match and Point of View Eyeline match is well utilized to maintain spatial orientation and direct viewer attention. Point of view is less well developed. The end of the justmentioned sequence of the robbery of the Martel house is a good example of the film's use of eyeline match and point of view: SHOT  MLS—The bandits are hurrying to make their getaway and load a heavy safe into the car fig.
SHOT [:n] LS—Martel is in the same position on the sidewalk, but the shot is from behind him, showing his home in the background as the car drives past him in the middle distance. Slight pan left as he watches the gang get away, then reframe to original shot as Martel runs toward his house. With this sequence of shots, Rosas maintains screen direction and incorporates eyeline matching.
Despite the shift in point of view in shots and —long shots of the Martel house taken not from Mattel's perspective but from a high angle directly across the street—the relationships among Martel, his house, the bandits, and the hastily loaded automovilgris are clear throughout. Though plainly not from Mattel's vantage point, these two shots are not jolting, because, as the only comprehensive shots of the robbery in the sequence, they provide important information.
The best example of this is a stunning set piece, 43 shots long shots , of an ambush of the gang by the detectives and the subsequent chase and shoot-out in the streets figs. The beginning of the long shoot-out sequence: two bandits recognize they are stepping into a trap. Filmed at an angle. Mercedes Gutierrez. They wait in a nearby room at Ernestina's family's house, terrified as they listen to the gun battle raging outside. The former is particularly evident in the pointing and gesturing in the robbery scenes.
But to be fair, even in sound films the acting in holdup scenes typically reverts to broad gestures because the bandits are demonstrating what they wish their victims to do. Much of the acting in El automovil gris, however, is more restrained and is consistent with contemporary European and Hollywood cinema.
Though the actor employs agitated gestures to show Martel's outrage, the scene is lighthearted, and his excitability is played for laughs. This is underscored by the three-part gag that ends the scene. Martel is so stirred up that he leaves and returns to the office three different times: once to give the inspector his card, once to fetch the hat he left on the inspector's desk, then finally to hand the inspector another business card, which the inspector indicates he doesn't need.
Dora Vila's performance as Ernestina is further evidence that the acting in the film conforms to established norms of the time. Vila conveys Ernestina's desperation after she has been kidnapped by a series of contained gestures and looks. This compares favorably with what was deemed sophisticated acting in contemporary Hollywood films. For example, Vila's performance, particularly the CUs in shots 40, 42, 45, and 66, is careful and subdued, falling comfortably between, for example, Mae Marsh's kinetic gesticulations in D.
From the extended shoot-out sequence. But even these shots exhibit important, cinematically advanced features. First, the camera was positioned nearer the action, consistent with classical cinematic practice. This, together with the film's analytical editing, brings the viewer into Elautomovil gris's narrative space. Second, Rosas's location shooting authentically displayed depth.
To further accentuate the depth of the real space and enhance the composition, Rosas often had characters walk toward or away from the camera. Third, Rosas typically used pans to capture a character's movement as in shot , when the camera pans with a bandit's father as he crosses the bedroom to convince his son to give himself up to the police or to survey a scene as in shot , in which Martel is making his complaint to the police inspector, and the camera pans left to capture the expressions of Martel, his valet, and Gonzalez.
If Rosas's interior shots are admirable, his exterior compositions are exceptional. Outdoors, Rosas was liberated from the stiff proscenium style, and his exterior shooting exhibited all that Rosas, called "the dean of Mexican cinematographers" by a film critic at the time,41 had learned at his craft.
An inventory of his shooting techniques is a primer of Rosas s cinematographic aesthetic. Angled Shots Rosas almost never shot an exterior action flat on but instinctively photographed from an angle, creating diagonal lines in the frame that suggested or depicted a vanishing point and made depth a crucial compositional element.
That this carried over from his documentary style is revealed in the documentary execution scene, in which he photographed the condemned prisoners at an angle. Moving Camera Rosas understood the dynamism that moving the camera brought to a shot. Here he may have been influenced by Italian filmmakers who had made elaborate tracking shots a key element of their ebullient style.
Then there is the tracking shot that follows the gang along a sidewalk as they approach a victim's house. But the film's most impressive moving shot by far is a long eighteen-second tracking shot that follows alongside the speeding gray automobile after the gang has robbed the Toranzo house and kidnapped a male servant. As the car rushes away, a group of gangsters taunt the bound servant in the backseat.
The entire action is captured in a single, steady, well-composed shot. Reframing Even in the comparatively static interior shots, Rosas would follow action, reframe, and recompose. In shot , a long take in which the bandits badger Toranzo, forcing him to check a cedar chest in one part of the room, then a desk on the opposite side, the camera recomposes as it follows Toranzo and the bandits to each location, then reframes as they return to the center of the room.
Rosas does the same in exterior shooting, as in shot , for example, discussed above, in which Martel spies the robbers outside his house. Clearing the Frame to End a Shot As I will demonstrate, Rosas had an excellent eye for composition, lighting, and perspective. He also grasped the importance of movement within the frame, and from frame to frame. Besides panning, he allowed the movement to empty from a stationary frame, and that became a favorite shotending device.
This occurs in the aforementioned shot , of the gang gathering to rob the Martel house. By providing two options in the shooting of moving characters—panning with the action or stopping and letting the actors clear the frame— Rosas adds variation and heightens interest. Furthermore, ending one shot with motion dynamically anticipates a matching action in the following shot. As was discussed with respect to continuity, the walking bandits who clear the frame in shot flow smoothly into the same action in shot , despite a change in screen direction.
Accordingly, he endeavored to compose his shots in depth whenever possible. One noteworthy interior example is shot , in which Gonzalez gives his statement to the police in the inspector's office. In the foreground, the left edge of the composition is framed by the secretary's shoulder, in the middle distance is the inspector at his desk, and in the background is Gonzalez. Nearly every exterior scene takes advantage of the additional depth of field afforded by daylight. A memorable example is Gonzalez's shooting of Navarrete shots —25 discussed above, in which Rosas displays one of his favorite techniques: having characters advance toward or retreat from the camera.
This becomes an important element of his mise-en-scene. By blocking the actors toward or away from a static camera, Rosas would, for example, transform a LS into a MS or vice versa , as exemplified by the Gonzalez-Navarrete confrontation shots —25 , in which the actors move from an extreme long shot ELS to a MLS. A marvelous example of this comes in the robbery of Gonzalez's house. To get Gonzalez to tell where his money is hidden, Granada and company take him out to the patio and threaten him.
In a LS and in one long take shot , 52 seconds , Gonzalez is given an ultimatum, then blindfolded and readied for execution fig. Suddenly Mercadante, Granada's second-in-command, pulls Granada aside to discuss torturing Gonzalez instead. Without cutting to a different shot, Rosas has them walk into the foreground—and into a MS—as they discuss the matter, while the other gangsters and Gonzalez remain in the background.
Once Granada agrees, they join the others, walking back into a LS. As a director, then, Rosas staged the action with both the camera and editing in mind. That is, his mise-en-scene was designed for interesting compositions and for shot variety within the same take, giving new meaning to the term "editing in the camera. The gang threatens Vicente Gonzalez with death. This long shot will convert to a medium shot when Granda and Mercadante center approach the camera.
One stunning example is of Carmen praying in a church shot 94 that appears to be completely illuminated by natural light. Kneeling in prayer, the key light falls on her through a stained glass window to her right, the soft fill light from a single candle flame to her left. Other examples are several establishing shots at the police station that occur throughout the film. Rosas places his camera at the near end of a short tunnel that leads from the street to the main station entrance.
There his camera records the entrances of the various characters in a LS as they walk from the distant daylight of the street into the darkness of the tunnel. Approaching the camera, the characters move into a MS. Simultaneously, they pass from normal exposure into a silhouette that stands out in bold relief against the normally exposed traffic in the background.
Then, as they reach the entrance, they exit the archway and fall back into normal exposure. Frame within a frame: the detectives interview a witness. The first technique adds immediacy, the second commands viewer attention, and the third enhances visual texture. Frames within the Frame Another repeated technique is positioning characters within frames doorways, windows, gate entrances, archways.
In addition to mimicking the camera's framing, placing characters within a rectangle "doubles" the image, the frame within the frame figs. Though this technique is not by any means as well developed or as extensively used as it would later be in sound films, its appearance so early in Mexican cinema is noteworthy.
The most prominent examples are the various tunnel shots of different characters approaching the police station, discussed above. In analytically edited scenes, for example, the briefer shots 3 — 4 seconds were typically MSs and CUs, and the longer and very long takes were LSs. Examples of lengthy LSs are the bandits' threatening to kill Gonzalez in his patio shot , 52 seconds , the tracking shot of the escaping car shot , 18 seconds , the loading of Martel's safe into the car shot , 27 seconds , the Gonzalez-Navarrete fight shot , 24 seconds , and the theft of the search warrants from the police detective's desk by Granada's accomplice shot , i: Combining the long take with a moving camera and composition in depth, Rosas creates an intricate, unbounded diegetic world.
Frame within a frame: as one of the bandits is arrested, his father and wife watch from the background. Incorporation of Local Color Rosas was not only a gifted filmmaker but also an experienced showman who knew how to attract a crowd. The enduring success of Mexican documentaries, several of which he filmed, promoted, and exhibited he had projected films in carpas [theatrical tent shows] as early as , and he opened his own nickelodeon in ,43 confirmed one thing: Mexican audiences liked seeing Mexico on the screen.
Thus El automovilgris included sequences shot in Puebla, Apam, and Almoloya, as police tracked down fleeing gang members. While some of these scenes were motivated by the facts of the case, others, particularly an extended, to-the-death cock fight near the end of the film, seem to be included mainly for their value as Mexican spectacle.
In the bargain, such scenes helped validate local folkways and boost national pride. As early Mexican cinema struggled to differentiate itself from Hollywood and European film, such sequences stamped El automovilgris as uniquely mexicano. The Legacy of El automovil gris As has been said, the film was an immediate, unqualified, and unprecedented popular success.
But perhaps a surer sign of its stylistic maturity was the critical acclaim it garnered in its time. Silvestre Bonnard Carlos Noriega Hope , the astute film reviewer for El Universal, was thoroughly impressed by the film, commenting that it augured well for the future of Mexican filmmaking. Comparing it with other—and in his mind lesser— recent Mexican films, he singled out its "splendid cinematography" and ended his review by saying that he looked forward to Rosas s producing the definitive Mexican film in the future.
Rosas died on 20 August , without directing another film, and El automovil gris would have to stand as his definitive filmmaking statement. It was certainly up to the task, and its impact was unmistakable. In the case of Mexico, El automovil gris reveals a robust mix of native creativity with foreign influence, rather than the crushing result of First World cultural imperialism. Indeed, this study demonstrates how deterministic and oversimplified media imperialism theory can be.
On the contrary, this analysis of Rosas s poetics argues from internal evidence that this experienced documentary filmmaker was no doubt influenced by Italian cinema's exuberance, the jaunty unpretentiousness of French crime serials, and Hollywood's narrative economy. And Rosas combined these influences in such a way that El automovil gris became far more than the derivative sum of its parts—it was the first dawning of Mexico's unique cinematic classicism.
Unless otherwise noted, translations from Spanish texts are the author's. The prologue title card reads as follows: "The story that is presented here takes place in the same locations where the events actually took place. The scenes of the robberies, the homes where the criminals lived, and the locations where they were apprehended or where they confessed their guilt are rigorously authentic. The action takes place in Excelsior, 25 January , rpt.
The newspaper El Universal reported on 11 December that on the opening day of the film in Mexico City, it premiered at eighteen theaters; rpt. Ramirez reports that on one afternoon after its premiere it showed at 23 theaters; Ramirez, Cronica del cine mudo, I have written about the thematic darkness that pervades sound-era Revolutionary films. David Maciel has recently argued that one of the defining features of Mexican filmmaking of the late s and s is that its filmmakers have at long last been able to shake off this languishing postrevolutionary guilt.
For a discussion of the state's support of Mexico's Golden Age cinema, see my Cinema of Solitude, pp. See also Maciel, "El imperio de la fortuna. De los Reyes, Medio siglo, De los Reyes, Cine y sociedad, See "La censura de las peliculas cinematograficas ;Es necesario hacer algo! See also an unsigned, undated article, presumably published in a Mexico City newspaper in , that complained about the denigrating representation of Mexico in U. De los Reyes, Media siglo, 66; de los Reyes, Ciney sociedad, Both de los Reyes, Media siglo, 20, and Carl J.
This is not to be confused with the Classical Golden Age, which lasted roughly from to Davalos Orozco and Vazquez Bernal, Filmografla general del cine, 25 — Aurelio de los Reyes comments on the difficulty of ascertaining the initiation of the project in Cine y sociedad, However, other opportunistic criminals are suspected of having imitated the method of la banda del automovil gris, and similar robberies probably occurred during the nine-month period.
Even after six members of the gang were executed, some copycat crimes were reported. Except where noted, this section summarizes the historical research published by Aurelio de los Reyes in the chapter entitled "Gangsters contra charros" "Gangsters versus Cowboys" in Cine y sociedad, Austin: University of Texas Press, , 3— According to published accounts, the robberies were extremely lucrative for the thieves, netting them jewels, clothes, and cash.
At one house, they took , pesos, at another 78, pesos' worth of bank notes. But the assaults could turn extremely violent. Just after midnight on 25 May, for example Manuel Taliabue surprised two gang members as they were about to break into a house. They killed Taliabue, robbed him, and proceeded to enter the house. There they murdered a young boy in front of his mother and sister. See de los Reyes, Cine y sociedad, Ramirez, Cronica del cine mudo, Five years after the crimes, and after the opening of the film, Higinio Granda declared that he had not acted alone in committing the crimes, and that "high officials" had been his accomplices; de los Reyes, Cine y sociedad, Ramos was one of the most prolific screenwriters of Mexican silent cinema.
Among his credits are Tepeyac , Confesion trdgica , Viaje redondo , Hasta despues de la muerte , El zarco , Carmen , Amnesia , and La parcela He even adapted the script for the film that competed with El automovil gris, called La banda del automovil La dama enlutada.
See Serrano and Noyola, "Nota a El automovil gris" 11, See de los Reyes, Cine y sociedad, — Likewise, the credit page for the film in the published screenplay gives Rosas sole credit as director; see El automovil gris Cuadernos de la Cineteca Nacional, no. Garcia Riera, Historia del cine mexicano, Rosas's choice to make a serial rather than a feature in the first place may seem unusual today, but for more than a decade after the inception of the form in , the serial was extremely popular.
In , for example, 35 percent of movie theaters in the United States were exhibiting them. Moreover, a serial is sensible in that it was a useful bridge between the short film and the feature p. De los Reyes, Cine y sociedad, — 47; on Ramos's participation, see note See the various announcements for and newspaper criticism of the film in Almoina, Notas para la historia del cine, I will refrain from using "primitive" to describe the first phase of Mexican cinema because, besides implying an uncritical notion of progress, the word denotes not just "early" but "crude.
Most of the films made during that time were documentaries, and based on the ones that survive, some of them were fairly accomplished films. I prefer to think of this stage of Mexican cinema as simply the initial period, without assigning a priori aesthetic value to it as compared with later stages. Among the more memorable elements of silent Italian cinema noted by Bustillo Oro were the "idyllic and sometimes licentious" stories, the historical spectacle of early epics such as The Last Days of Pompeii , Quo Vadis?
Another way to gauge the impact on Mexican cinema is to note that many of the films produced in Mexico in , the first year of sustained Mexican narrative filmmaking, were inspired by Italian melodramas. In addition, the five Rosas-Derba films made that year were in the "Italian style. However, both Italian and French films were popular in Mexico in the s, though their prominence gradually gave way to Hollywood cinema, especially during and after World War I.
Bustillo Oro imagined a "battle" between Italian and French cinemas over the Mexican movie market. According to him, the French cinema dominated the marketplace early in the decade, until Italian spectacles and melodramas rose in popularity. The French "countered" with detective serials such as Feuillade's. The prominence of both French and Italian cinema in Mexico is evident in the newspaper accounts of the day and is chronicled in both de la Maza's and Almoina's compilations.
In designating individual shots, I will refer to the shot numbers given in the published script, El automovil gris Cuadernos de la Cineteca Nacional, no. Since I viewed a video copy of this film to prepare this article, I could not count actual film frames. Therefore, I could not make precise determinations of shot length. David Cook comments on the relatively restrained acting of the Italian silent cinema.
Garcia Riera disagrees, saying that the addition of sound frequently made the actions look ridiculous and the acting look theatrical; Historia del cine mexicano, Bonnard, ''Elautomovilgris," Commenting on camera movement in silent Italian cinema, Kristin Thompson and David Bordwell note that Cabirias tracking shots were the most influential of the period. Slow tracking shots became common elements in cinema of the mids and were known as "Cabiria movements. Bonnard, "El automovil gris " Davalos Orozco and Vazquez Bernal, Filmografia general del cine, Lopez Within the general trajectory of Latin American filmmaking, the big moment of pan-continental travel and collaboration is generally said to have happened with the New Latin American Cinema in the As this accepted historical narrative would have it, filmmakers who had been working independently to produce "new" cinemas in their respective countries began to meet on foreign and Latin American soil, to share ideas, and to think of themselves as a united—if not necessarily unified—movement.
Thus under the banner of the new cinema movements and the new national cinemas of the especially Cuba's , intercontinental cinematic collaborations were heralded as one of the central strategies of the new panLatin American movement. Even in this period, however, although there was indeed much cinematic collaboration among the various Latin American nations, the tendency of most film histories has been to treat the cinemas of each nation as discrete phenomena, framed primarily by the sociopolitical vagaries of each state and only incidentally linked to continental social changes and movements.
Although historians have recognized and analyzed these cinemas' susceptibility to shifts in international politics and economics for example, the oft-cited U. L6PEZ of this period of Latin American filmmaking have dealt almost exclusively with the national forces and players that shaped the "national" cinema. Although not defined by the unified ideology of a pan-continental social movement like the New Latin American Cinema, the classic cinemas were also marked by often intense and significant agenda and standard-setting transnational cross-fertilizations.
The most obvious evidence of these cross-fertilizations are the coproductions among Latin American producers that became de rigueur in the but existed as early as the Most often engineered through the Mexican or Argentine industries, these films have a curious status: in Mexican and Argentine film histories they tend to be included, although designated as inferior works, whereas in "other" contemporary national histories for example, accounts of pre-Revolutionary Cuban film they are, with few exceptions, highlighted as indigenous achievements and as evidence of the energy and potential of the nascent local cinema industry.
Although less evident than the recognized coproductions, traveling film personnel also provided for rich transnational exchanges. Of course, it goes without saying that Latin American filmmaking was profoundly influenced by travel across the Rio Grande. For example, many of the sound cinema pioneers of Latin America—especially from Mexico—learned the craft in the United States, especially in the days of the "Hispanic" cinema boom in the late and early Although many only appeared as extras in "Hispanic" films or worked within the industry in secondary roles assistants, makeup artists, translators, etc.
In fact, Alex Phillips, like many other expatriates, arrived in Mexico in this period to stay and became one the most celebrated cinematographers of the Mexican cinema, with hundreds of films to his credit. Like Phillips, other U.
Others like Paul Strand traveled to Mexico for short periods or for specific projects, such as Strand's work for Redes Nets, But travel across the Atlantic was also fruitful: some of the most celebrated cinematographic travelers to Latin America came from Europe. Sergei Eisenstein's trip to Mexico in left a significant imprint upon the nascent Mexican cinema, and Luis Bunuel's extended and productive stay continues to be the source of much debate.
Alberto Cavalcanti's sojourn in Brazil as director of the Vera Cruz Studios in Sao Paulo in the late and the , although less discussed, was no less significant. The Vera Cruz experience—the failure of high-budget studio-based filmmaking in Brazil—gave rise to important debates about the national cinema in the mid- to late that set the stage for the emergence of the Cinema Novo movement.
The issue of intracontinental influences in the classical period is not only a fascinating historical puzzle but also one that questions the viability of the "national" as the signpost of classical Latin American film histories by highlighting the hybridization inherent to all national cinemas. Against the prevailing myth of national cinematic insularity and histories of national achievements and failures, I want to argue for the need to look at the history of Latin American cinema from a continental perspective that includes, but mediates, the national.
This will require an analysis of official international agreements and collaborations but, more important, much research into the networks of intellectual and cinematic exchanges established unofficially through interpersonal relationships and work-related travel. Thus, in this context, the figure of the traveling filmmaker—and the foreigners gaze—as a site for tracing the mediation of nation is potentially a key for opening up a space for transnational analyses of the classic Latin American cinema.
Of the intracontinental travelers I have been able to track down, Carlos Hugo Christensen stands out because of the persistence of his pan-national efforts. He began his filmmaking career as a very young man in Argentina in the , worked in Chile and Venezuela, and ended up settling in Brazil 35 36 ANA M. L6PEZ in the mids, where he thrived despite his relative marginalization from the emergent and later institutionally powerful Cinema Novo crowd.
Christensen began his film career at a time of great growth for Latin American cinema. Both the Argentine and Mexican cinemas were thriving, having totally eclipsed the Spanish cinema in crisis because of the civil war in the internationally strong Spanish-language market: in there were 5, movie theaters in Latin America—Brazil had 1,, Argentina 1,, Mexico , and Cuba Of the 17, theaters in the United States, regularly played Spanish-language films.
Simultaneously and inspired especially by the Mexican and Argentine examples, other nations had begun their efforts to produce national cinemas in the late and continued to do so—with various degrees of success—throughout the early Peru, Uruguay, Cuba, Chile, Venezuela. In Argentina, although there were approximately thirty functioning production companies in , most filmmaking revolved around two studios: Argentina Sono Films, the oldest, and Lumiton, founded in by three radio pioneers.
Lumiton became well known for its tightly knit technical and artistic teams, quick production schedules, and efficient—if not minimal—budgets. Firmly convinced of the commercial potential of the new industry and attempting to attract middle-class and upper-class audiences, which disdained the national cinema, in the late Lumiton began to focus on more-sophisticated subject matter and settings, producing a more romantic "bourgeois" cinema and highlighting the work of director Francisco Mugica.
In the mid-i94os, Christensen presented Lumiton with a viable option: explicit sexuality in either comedic or melodramatic scenarios. His film Safo: Historia de unapasion Safo: Story of a Passion, , a melodrama about a young boy enslaved by the sexual power of a much older prostitute, is credited for introducing "the erotic" into the Argentine cinema.
The film played for more than a year in Buenos Aires and was widely seen throughout the continent. Perez, duplicated the success ofSafo in the realm of comedy. Thus began what Argentine historian Domingo di Niibila has handily dubbed the "Christensen era" at Lumiton.
However, alongside Christensen's successes, the Argentine industry was beginning to feel the effects of the war and the U. Although the studios set up a film black market through third countries, especially Chile and Uruguay , the high costs of these transactions led to production cutbacks: from a high of fifty films in , production dropped to a low of twenty-three in Despite stentorian efforts to control production costs via even tighter production budgets and frenetic schedules , Lumiton had to cut back severely.
Meanwhile, the Mexican industry had quickly filled in the gap in the international market created by the decrease in Argentine production. After the war, the Argentine industry was also affected by Juan Peron's rise to the presidency in and the subsequent political polarization of the nation. The cinema was placed under the jurisdiction of the Subsecretaria de Informaciones y Prensa de la Presidencia de la Nacion a sort of ministry of propaganda and its director, Raul Alejandro Apold, who subsequently became known as the "cinema czar.
While Mexico still had the strongest and most far-reaching cinema after the war, the overall market for Latin American films had begun to contract. Hollywood had very quickly reestablished its absolute dominance over all international markets, including the Spanish-language one, and all Latin American producers faced suffer competition. Nevertheless, other Latin American nations—still awed by the accomplishments of the Mexican and Argentine industries in the and early —remained eager to tap into what was still perceived as a potentially lucrative and prestigious "national" enterprise.
In these instances, state support for industrial development was often made available. Thus in , Christensen was invited to direct in Chile by the recently established state-funded national producer Chile Films, initiating his continental filmmaking with La dama de la muerte The Lady of Death, Accustomed to the industrial limitations 37 38 ANA M. The personnel was also very professional. But they spent too much money: the manager used to come to work in the morning in a nineteenth century horse-drawn carriage.
Shortly thereafter, following the extraordinary success of El angel desnudo The Naked Angel, , which featured the first female nude of the Argentine cinema and transformed Olza Zubarry into its first "sexy" star, Christensen was once again invited to travel and encountered a vastly different scenario. His description of this experience provides interesting insights about the paradoxes of the formation of a national film industry: Some Venezuelans came to Lumiton and invited me to work at new studios that would be inaugurated with my film.
They said that they wanted to develop a Venezuelan cinema and were willing to go to great lengths to achieve their objective. According to them, they had everything there. So, I went. Although the studios existed, there was nothing in them. I remember that I said to them, "But you said you had everything! Lights, cameras, everything necessary to make a feature-length film was brought in by airl Since there was no technical infrastructure, I brought technicians in from Argentina.
Owner Villegas Blanco had purchased the equipment and studios of Condor Films a firm started in by Rafael Maria Zambrano that had produced only two films before disappearing in , then had contracted with the state to produce documentary, publicity, and newsreel shorts. Gradually, the company forged important alliances with other smaller producers and distributors until, in —, it came to be perceived as the preeminent national producer and received funding from the state to finance feature-length fictional projects.
Why was the Venezuelan state interested in fostering a national cinema at this particular conjuncture? For one thing, after the coup, there had been a concerted movement to define a singular national identity. Echoing the foundational work of the characters of Romulo Gallegos s novel Dona Barbara , who embody and act out the struggle between a primitive and violent past Dona Barbara and the modernizing force of civilization Santos Luzardo , the national culture was identified with the attributes of a subsector of the nation: the culture of the llano, or plains, with its mythical llanero-cowboys wearing spats and boots, and peasants shod in espadrilles.
Within this paradigm, a national cinema was perceived as a modernizing force, but one that could still highlight the cultural elements being promulgated in other cultural realms as the marks of national identity. Christensens second project for Bolivar films, the feature La balandra Isabel llego esta tarde The Isabel Arrived This Afternoon, was, in many ways, a perfect synthesis of the Venezuelan state s cultural and national agenda.
As an adaptation of Venezuelan writer Guillermo de Meneses' short story of the same title, it was by default positioned as a celebration of national culture. Although Meneses would fall from grace during the decade of the dictatorship, in the late he was recognized as one of the principal voices of the national literature.
L6PEZ a difference. While Gallegos's positivist foundational fictions used the "local" referent—that is, regional settings and characters—as a source of national stability and an access to universal values, Meneses' work reconfigured similarly folkloric referents within radically unstable fictional universes.
His focus on the power of sexuality to determine and drive human action and, even more significantly, his fascination with Afro-Venezuelan culture rather than rural llanero culture , simultaneously marked his work with a "new" vanguard spirit while celebrating—and exoticizing—some of the most traditional, yet mysterious, aspects of the national imaginary. Much more indebted to Freud and Bergson than to nineteenth-century positivism, Meneses' fictions are peopled with characters who are adrift in, rather than grounded by, their regionality.
Having already been adapted for the stage in by Meneses himself, "La balandra Isabel" was thus positioned as a perfect symbol of a new Venezuelan national cultural identity. Adapted to the screen by another Venezuelan writer, Aquiles Nazoa, and Christensen himself, the film version of La balandra Isabel pulled together a literary work of recognized national importance whose subject matter also addressed those folkloric elements in the forefront of official definitions of the nation, and with the same exoticizing impulse.
La balandra Isabel was the most talked-about and awarded film of the period. Billed as the first Venezuelan "super-production," the film and its production were widely publicized. That its budget of , bolivares approximately U. For example, Miguel Otero Silva in the newspaper El National claimed that the film was "a revelation for natives and foreigners of all the grandeur and potential that the Venezuelan cinema can achieve.
A nation that produces a film like La balandra Isabel will not remain on the margins and has the duty to continue offering us such works of art. Of course, exoticizing the nation via folklore as a strategy for foundational national cinemas had already proven to be a viable strategy in Latin America, as the success of the Mexican ranchera genre had proven in the late Here, however, more than a decade later, joined to the focus on sexuality in Meneses' story and to Christensen's already-established reputation as a "sexy" director, the folkloric nation is reinscribed as a locus for desire and a melodramatic engine.
Rather than focus upon couple formation—the family romance—within a folkloric allegory of the nation, La balandra Isabel invokes the folkloric as an explicitly erotic subtext tinged with foreignness and with the potential to destabilize the family and the nation. Happily married and with a preadolescent son who is eager to follow in his seafaring footsteps, Segundo is introduced as a stable patriarchal figure with great authority. But when he goes off to sea, we discover that he is in fact unstable and obsessed by a powerful sexy woman, Esperanza, with whom he spends time in the port town of La Guaira.
The spell works. Segundo, even though accompanied by his son on this particular trip, is drawn inexorably to Esperanza, until he discovers that she is betraying him with Bocu. After he fights with Bocii, the power of the spell and of Esperanza s sexuality are dispelled and he is able to return to his son and his ship and to head home to Isla Margarita, his wife, and a "normal" social order.
To read La balandra Isabel simultaneously as foundational for the national cinema and through the lens of a traveling filmmaker is thus especially apropos, because the film is itself, in part, about traveling. Furthermore, both impulses, although ostensibly contradictory, find cinematic expression in a similar kind of formal gesture: a double-voicedness or dual focus that mediates the melodramatic through an appeal to the documentary power of the image and its potential ethnographic truth.
The film begins with a documentary-like move. The credits are superimposed upon a freeze-frame of waves violently crashing on a jagged rock and accompanied by dramatic orchestral scoring that approximates the 41 42 ANA M. L6PEZ sound of the ocean. Following the directors name, the frozen image is animated and dissolves into a sailboat upon which a rather crudely drawn map of northern Venezuela is superimposed.
On the upper half of the map is Isla Margarita, and while the camera slowly reframes to center the small island, an obtrusive authoritarian male voice-over with a marked Venezuelan accent identifies and describes the locale where the story will be set: "Land of sailors, at other times a mecca for greedy adventurers attracted by the fame of its pearls, Margarita dazzles like an invocation to the world of fauna.
Thus the film interrupts the trajectory of its very melodramatic credit sequence to begin with a minidocumentary treatise—in almost perfect travelogue style—that succinctly introduces and describes the life cycle of the island with images that scream out their "authenticity. Furthermore, we can briefly see the bemused glances of several of the participants who occasionally look at the camera and smile shyly amidst all their activity.
Formally embracing this "other" island into the nation but through the eye of the foreign traveler, this documentary introduction simultaneously exalts and exoticizes Isla Margarita and the humble "natives" who work the sea by inserting them into diegesis as little else but the "world of the fauna" of the island.
Echoing this gesture, the first dramatic scene of the film is also marked by a traveler's gaze. Following a fade to black after the close-up of the tiny fish leaping in a basket, a high-angle shot shows a bunch of kids paddling in the water yelling, "jEl ultimo, mister, el ultimo! A man visually coded as a foreigner—sweating profusely and wearing a white linen suit and hat, a loud flowered shirt, a camera around his neck, and a smoking cigar—stands on the pier and pitches coins into the sea for local kids to dive for.
Identified as "Monsieur" one of the kids even yells out to him, "jMonsieur-cito! After one last big pitch, one of the kids gets a cramp, and a handsome man, observing the foreigner disapprovingly, dives in to pull him out. When he comes out of the water, Segundo squares off with the foreigner, pushes him off the pier, and walks off with his son. Narratively, this sequence serves to introduce two of our principal characters—Segundo and his son—and to characterize the father-son relationship and patriarchal lines of descent as central and linked to the sea and seafaring.
But beyond its service to the plot, it also begins the film with a curious, determining, and very telling gesture. What can we make of the figure of the foreigner here? He is of no further narrative significance and never reappears, but his presence—like that of the map—is an index of the film's necessarily ambivalent position vis-a-vis its problematic, if not impossible, national commitments.
By focusing on the diegetic foreignness of "Monsieur," the film can relativize the extra-diegetic otherness of Arturo de Cordova as a Venezuelan ship captain into a cinematic imaginary structured by the melodramatic. Recognized and displaced, foreignness itself becomes the principal source of melodramatic excess.
Thus the film sets the terms for Segundo s redemption—he must reject the foreign, the other, his own foreignness—wherein the national becomes a question of taming the excess of foreignness rather than only a battle over emotions, passion, and desire. This initial insistence on highlighting "otherness" is echoed, narratively and visually, throughout the rest of the film.
For example, early in the film, after we have been introduced to his idyllic and quite bourgeois home life with wife and son, Segundo leaves Isla Margarita for La Guaira, a port town where he himself is a stranger and a traveler, an outsider. He is haunted by a song—identified by his noticeably Argentine first mate, Martinote, as "Esperanza's song"—and stares at the sea longingly while his sailors joke about the women waiting for them in La Guaira in Venezuelan slang.
When they arrive at La Guaira a crowded prototypical port town in which nationalities, races, classes, and genders seem to coexist easily , Segundo dons a dapper white linen suit and straw hat and goes ashore, where he is greeted warmly by a series of women asking after his sailors. Reenacting "Monsieur's" stance and clothing, he is jovial and self-assured with all of them, a man completely in control of himself and his element, un capitdn.
L6PEZ is with another man. Inside the bar, Esperanza is next to an older man in a card game and singing with her back to the door; she does not see Segundo enter. Our first close-up of her discloses a beautifully excessive face, markedly sensual, already glistening with desire the complete opposite of his wife's proper beauty. Segundo waits until the end of her song and then moves in to take her away.
When challenged by the old man, they first duel at cards Segundo wins , and finally they fistfight. At the end, the old man is beaten to a bloody pulp and gives up, while Segundo is barely mussed only a little strand of curly hair has fallen onto his forehead.
When he comes to Esperanza, they kiss passionately and leave the bar after Segundo throws the bartender a golden coin. Literally repeating "Monsieur's" actions in the first sequence, Segundos aggressiveness and conquering spirit are not that different from those of the prototypical foreigner. Like Monsieur, he watches the natives bemusedly and has no respect for the life of this "other" world.
He has money and, as he tells Esperanza, no man there is "man" enough to take her away from him. Subsequently, Esperanza begs him to stay with her, and in the throes of passion, he promises to stay with her forever. But after spending three days in her messy, crowded, and noisy apartment—surrounded by flypaper, bottles of liquor, and squabbles among neighboring women—he is utterly disgusted by the exotic, yet squalid, banality and vulgarity of her life.
A similar layering of otherness occurs when on the way back home, after Bocii's spell begins to affect Segundo, a storm forces the ship to stop at Carenero, another island port. In this even more exotic locale—an other to the other of La Guaira—the primarily Afro-Venezuelan natives are celebrating the feast of San Juan with santeria drumming, singing, and dancing.
Here there is no "normalcy"; it is night and the otherness is explicit and all-encompassing. And Segundo is no longer in control: he is driven to drink and into a mad frenzy—beautifully photographed in canted medium and close-up shots—by Bocii's spell and by the powerful ritualistic festivities.
The otherness here is utterly foreign, excessive, dangerous, unmediated, intolerable. Later, when Segundo seems to have moved permanently to La Guaira, where Bocu's spell keeps him enslaved to Esperanza's sexuality, he becomes a complete moral weakling and physical bully. The formerly dapper capitdn becomes a besotted drunk; all he can do is hang around Esperanza, listen to her singing, and bully the bar patrons to be as entranced by her as he is.
His passion has denuded him and transformed him into a caricature of his former powerful self. Driven only by a mad desire and sweating rather unbecomingly again, like Monsieur in the first sequence , he ignores his work, his sailors, certainly the memory of his wife waiting for him back home, but, most significantly, even his own son.
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