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Mothers of infants exhibiting more avoidant or contact maintaining behaviors de Graag, Jolien A.; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Hasselman, Fred; Jansen, Jarno;. Hasselmann, Anne Rinchiuso. A robust medical volunteer program is critical to ensuring a successful response to public health and medical.

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Music Tracking These are releases that I've taken note of, listed alphabetically by artist, with VA comps at the bottom. Option selectors: Include priority 0 , exclude rated. Rated only. Unrated only. Who Not. Beat Music! It's a Fever Dream. P: 2TRP. Det Goda. And yet, as with the Pater Noster itself, the meaning is in the text as a whole, not in its individual letters. Milk and honey suggest the abundance of the Promised Land in Exodus and repeatedly throughout the Bible.

It is an apt allusion for a prayer that comforts but is rich in meaning. It is the only prayer Jesus taught to his disciples, and early on it became essential knowledge for a Christian. One of its most important uses was in the instruction of adult converts to Christianity. In antiquity, these prayers were treated as secrets or mysteries of the faith: taught late in the process of candidacy, their full recitation was avoided in the presence of unbaptised persons.

The candidate should only write them on the tablets of the heart. They should rest in his memory as a secure, precious treasure. Repeated insistence that these two prayers had to be known is a sign that, in fact, many early medieval Christians did not know them.

Examples abound of primers from the medieval period up to the nineteenth century using the Creed and Pater Noster as the very first texts to be learned by a beginning reader. Taken out of this miraculous context, however, line 78 also functions as a laconic riddle, the answer to which is writing. Due to its status as an elementary text of the faith, the Pater Noster is also intimately bound up with the problem of ignorance, and this ignorance takes many forms.

There is the problem of not knowing or forgetting the text, in Latin or in the vernacular; there is the problem of not knowing the meaning of the words, in Latin or in the vernacular; and there is the problem of not knowing the importance of praying with the right mindset, which leads to absent-mindedness and distraction.

Pater Noster literature in Middle and Early Modern English responds to or parodically replicates concerns about ignorance, forgetfulness, and mental absence. The fact that the Pater Noster was used daily, in contexts sacred and otherwise, generated a wide variety of parodic treatments in European literature of the middle ages. Solomon and Saturn I encompasses both of these extremes. Absent-mindedness during prayer, a problem of both intellect and affect, is recurrently addressed in devotional writing of the early middle ages.

One of the disguises favoured by demons was the figure of a pagan god, and aside from beating or sexually tantalising their victim monks, demons also tempted them by discussing theological questions. As Mishtooni Bose has shown, he was at once a figure of wisdom, the author of Ecclesiastes, Proverbs, and the Song of Songs, and infamously uxorious, a friend of the Queen of Sheba, worshipping pagan gods under the influence of his wives.

Bede and Rabanus Maurus thought that Solomon had not, indeed, been pardoned by God for his idolatry. It was precisely this dubious and enigmatic stature, according to Bose, that made Solomon such a suggestive literary figure,36 standing at once for wisdom and unbridled desire. In other words, while the dialogue is, on the surface, a teaching moment between two wise men, its undercurrents are pagan idolatry, temptation, aggression, devilish curiosity, and demonic desire.

The suggestion of fear in gebrydded is appropriate in several respects. It fits a reading of Solomon and Saturn I as a poem of sophisticated teaching that recalls the emotional environment of the basic classroom. The topos 44 Prayer: Solomon and Saturn I of fear as a teaching device also appears in the question and answer dialogue Adrian and Ritheus, a cousin text of Solomon and Saturn I.

This work belongs to the Joca monachorum genre of intellectual trivia, and its material overlaps with the Collectanea Pseudo-Bedae and the Prose Solomon and Saturn. One exchange reads: Saga me feower stafas dumbe. I tell you, one is spirit, the second is thought, the third is writing, the fourth is fear.

Est mens, oculus et littera. They are the mind, eye, and letter. The Latin version is focused on the process by which written knowledge enters and is processed in the mind, while the Old English version of the aphorism adds the affective component of fear into the process of teaching.

Gebrydded is fitting for another reason as well. If Saturn maintains some of his demonic associations, his desire to know and to experience the devil-whipping Pater Noster could result in a truly terrifying experience. Curiosity will recur in chapter 5, and there too it is ambivalent. Insofar as curiosity represents attentive and careful striving toward religious knowledge, what comes to be known in later medieval writing as sollicitudo or religiosa curiositate, it is positive.

And when it has begun to mull over that one within itself, before it has tossed it around thoroughly, the memory of another witness springs up and prevents the contemplation of the previous matter. Again it moves from this thought to another when another contemplation comes to mind, and so the soul ever rolls from psalm to psalm, skips from the Gospels to the Epistles, tumbles from these too to the prophets, and after that it is carried away to certain spiritual stories, and tossed, roving and unstable, throughout the entire body of Scripture.

It is not able either to abandon or hold on to anything by its own choice, nor can it finish anything by judging and examining it fully. It becomes a mere toucher and taster of spiritual meaning, not its producer or possessor. Finally, in a detail that will seem felicitous to any intellectual working on a long project, Cassian specifies that the over-curious mind cannot bring its meditative process to completion.

This endless openness and hunger of curiosity typifies Saturn as well. He seems to have wandered in the physical sense, and certainly has erred through ancient Libyan, Greek, and Indian wisdom. It may seem odd to describe Saturn as curious for a terrifying or hazardous prayer, but an essential attribute of curiosity is that it need not be directed toward pleasant objects. But curiosity differs from pleasure: voluptas pulchra, canora, suavia, sapida, lenia sectatur, curiositas autem etiam his contraria temptandi causa, non ad subeundam molestiam, sed experiendi noscendique libidine.

Curiosity, however, seeks even the opposites of these just to try them, not to undergo discomfort, but from the desire to experience and know. It is one of the small ironies of Solomon and Saturn I that Saturn longs for an object that is beautiful, melodious, and sweet, and, at the same time, potentially dangerous to him. It teaches scripture, guides people and holds a place for them in the kingdom of heaven, carries war gear.

CCCC 41, 30—33 Therefore it would be dearer to him than all this bright creation, of gold and silver, poured out from the earth, the four cornered [world] full of ancient treasures, if he ever knew something of this song. CCCC 41, 34—35 He is vile then and foreign to the almighty Lord, no kin to the angels, he wanders alone. In this passage, the person who does not know the Pater Noster has his status described in terms of deprivation i.

This passage suggests a reinterpretation of the lines in Solomon and Saturn I in which the person who cannot praise Christ through the Pater Noster is not only unrelated to the angels, but hostile to them, as another denotation of ungesib suggests. CCCC , 57b—62 Very often in the world curiosity asks me about this, eagerly reproaches, disturbs my mind. No man knows, none of the warriors under heaven, how my mind becomes weak, busy in the pursuit of books.

Sometimes a burning rises in me, surges oppressively near my heart. His cardiocentric heat is typical of Anglo-Saxon vernacular descriptions of intense emotions. Fyrwit, the word Saturn uses for his inquisitiveness, is primarily used in Old English for curiosity, and carries connotations both sacred and profane. As Inge Milfull has pointed out, the glosses, proverbs, and grammar suggest that the manuscript was used as a schoolbook. Here, Solomon bitingly revisits images linking Saturn to the devil, namely the exile motif and the pain near the heart.

And, just as any sinful man might identify with the speaker of Psalm 38,65 so does the Old English poem suggest, albeit subtly, that its audience might take part in its drama of ignorance, desire, and learning. A literate Christian of the Anglo-Saxon period would have recalled his own early education when reading or hearing the poem. He might have reflected on the difficulty of truly understanding and living a prayer so essential to his faith.

He might also have wished to be newly overwhelmed by words which had grown commonplace. The desire depicted in Solomon and Saturn I, a desire intended for the reader to emulate, has a distinct monastic flavour, reflecting the fervour with which desire for God is often described in monastic writings. Jonathan Wilcox and Kathryn Powell consider this expression to be proof that Saturn does not know that books are to be read, not chewed.

Indeed, Powell connects this to a larger fetishisation of the book as object in both Solomon and Saturn poems. The method used to teach reading in the middle ages was based on the ancient Greek and Roman system, a pedagogical method of such longevity that we continue to see its principles put to use in reading primers of the early modern period.

As described in Chapter 1, students were first taught the individual letters of the alphabet backwards and forwards, and then made to combine and recombine them into various nonsensical syllables. The focus was less on meaning or on recognition of the phonetic building blocks of the language in question, and more on building a familiarity with the letters as such, and a facility at manipulating them. As Mary Carruthers points out, this was a system of teaching that encouraged a playful attitude towards written language, and the kind of mindset that delights in anagrams, ciphers, and rebuses.

As fantastical as this section of the poem is, it also calls up an image of the elementary classroom, where seriousness of purpose in learning that fundamental text, the Pater Noster, is combined with playfulness in encoding it. On the other hand, to be a child in this sense is no mean thing, since it means undertaking a course of study that will result in ability to interact with texts by taking them apart, recombining them, and using them as the basis of poetic composition.

The letter combat in Solomon and Saturn I embodies and exemplifies more advanced arts of the mind too. This section of the poem, as fantastical and mythological it may be on the surface, exhibits many of the memory techniques described by Carruthers. It was the advice of writers on memory from Quintilian to Hugh of St Victor that difficult texts be broken up into smaller pieces for easier memorisation; the Pater Noster has frequently undergone this procedure, not only due to the pressing need to commit it to memory, but also because the need to understand it has resulted in a tradition of commenting on the individual clauses.

The way a reader interprets Anglo-Saxon runes tends to betray her broader assumptions about Anglo-Saxon literature, and in the case of Solomon and Saturn I it is easy to read the runes as a sign of popular, perhaps even pagan, magic.

To be fair, this is, after all, the primary reading prompted by the poem and its manuscript context. Indeed, Solomon and Saturn I could serve as a textbook example on how a strange alphabet might be used for memorisation. The urge to connect the letters of the alphabet to human figures seems to be as old as non-hieroglyphic alphabets themselves. For Peter, the anthropomorphic figures most stimulating to his memory were enticing women. Jody Enders has argued that scourging scenes in medieval drama would have prompted their audiences to recall their own experience of pedagogical violence, making the drama more memorable by reinforcing it with the recollection of painful lived experience.

He recommends short and frequent prayers as performed by the Egyptians, and, to avoid the tedium of lengthy psalms, advises breaking them up into smaller sections especially during solitary prayer. Cassian thus outlines the strategic use of snippets of prayer as defences in a metaphorical battle with the devil, whose iacula, or darts, come in the form of distractions. A monk who has trouble concentrating during prayers, wandering away in both body and mind, is sent to Benedict for intervention.

The blow against a demon, and the temptation he embodies and represents, is also a disciplinary strike, one that recalls the trope of pedagogical beating. Distraction at prayer can be resolved through advanced learned spiritual techniques, by structuring the practice to hold attention and meditating on the spiritual power of the individual words, but it can also be achieved by a renewed spiritual infancy.

The process of scrambling letters, syllables, and words was termed scinderatio fonorum by the seventh-century, probably Irish grammarian Virgilius Maro Grammaticus. The second is to beautify and construct eloquence. The third is so that things that are mystical and should only be revealed to experts not be learned easily and indiscriminately by inferior and stupid people, lest swine step on gems, as the ancient proverb has it. In De doctrina christiana, Augustine thus explains the enigmatic nature of Scripture itself: But casual readers are misled by problems and ambiguities of many kinds, mistaking one thing for another.

In some passages they find no meaning at all that they can grasp at, even falsely, so thick is the fog created by some obscure phrases. I have no doubt that this is all divinely predetermined, so that pride may be subdued by hard work and intellects which tend to despise things that are easily discovered may be rescued from boredom and reinvigorated. These readings of the letter battle as technology of prayer and stimulus to lethargic intellectuals do not exclude my earlier interpretations of it as classroom recollection and mnemonic device.

For the purposes of analysis I have artificially divided these functions, but the point is that the scene contains a multiplicity of meanings already present in the Pater Noster, a prayer of lucid simplicity and infinite significance. The reader or listener of Solomon and Saturn I is invited to occupy two positions at once. The first is one of vulnerability. The techniques of basic reading pedagogy incorporated into the fabric of the poem recall the state of being a child, at least with respect to learning.

And yet, the reader is also offered a second, privileged perspective. In the monasteries corporal punishment moves beyond having a fluid and debatable relationship to education into something firmly anchored therein. Corporal punishment certainly played its part in early medieval pedagogy, even if educators were not as uncritical in its use as they are sometimes represented to have been by modern scholars.

It is, however, a mistake to assume neat equivalence or a straightforward historical connection between allusions to physical discipline in texts and its use in everyday life. AngloSaxon writers used the motif of pain in education as a tool to think with, an aid to comprehension and memory, and a stimulant to curiosity and attention. The Colloquies do show how effective fearful and violent language can be for teaching Latin and inculcating monastic identity.

At the same time, they dramatise how violence can disrupt the monastic projects of building community, an ethical self, and reflective textual practice. One boy should stand on the right side of his arse and the other on the left. Hit him on his arse and back by turns. The boys of the dialogues cower under the threat of corporal punishment, they bully each other, and the older monks overstep the bounds of propriety. The scene also encapsulates the overarching contradiction of the Colloquies: by having his pupils memorise this dialogue, Bata indoctrinates them into a system of self- and mutual discipline meant to maintain monastic order and moral purity; in the same colloquy, however, he shows the system slipping to an extreme where both master and students are implicated in brutality.

This technique has the immediate pedagogic function of making his Latin textbook more interesting and memorable for his students, but has the secondary effect of creating a challenging and troubled text for its modern readers. While the Colloquies are not drama in the Greco-Roman tradition, their use in the classroom would have constituted a performance.

This is essential to understanding the repeated mentions of corporal punishment in the Colloquies and what psychological and behavioural effects they might have had on boys memorising and reciting them as part of classroom practice. The lack of a simple answer to the problem of violence is due partly to ambiguity intrinsic to the dialogue form, and partly to the uncertainty evinced in the Colloquies regarding the ultimate usefulness of corporal punishment.

The manuscript gives limited indication of how the dialogues might be used, however. The Colloquies are written in running text, divided into scenes by larger, rubricated capital letters, while Reading Bata in Context 63 individual lines of dialogue are sometimes set apart by regular capital letters and semicolons or punctus interrogativus. There are no clear speech divisions, nor any markings to indicate speakers, so a number of passages could be given to one speaker or split among multiple figures.

As David Porter has shown, the Colloquies are comparable in design to modern communicative language teaching methods, in which functional speaking ability in day-to-day situations is prized above abstract grammatical knowledge. Beyond scenes of cruelty, the Colloquies are filled with other worrying activities: the oblates own and deal in personal property, hurl filthy Latin insults at each other, and are frequently left alone to their own, often nefarious devices. They are also beset on all sides by dubious older monks who force them to eat and drink to excess, ask them to accompany them to the bathroom alone, and request kisses and embraces.

The text of the Colloquies invites this confusion. The daily scenes seem too ordinary and realistic to be fictional, and indeed, they can be a profitable source of information about monastic life. Michael Lapidge has argued against the implication in Colloquy 3 that each student possessed his own book, pointing out that too few student copies of manuscripts survive to believe that students owned personal copies of school texts. Ideo autem hoc constitui et meatim disposui sermonem hunc uobis iuuenibus, sciens scilicet quosque pueros iugiter suatim loquentes adinuicem ludicra uerba sepius quam honorabilia et sapientiae apta, quia aetas talium semper trahit ad inrationabilem sermonem et ad frequens iocum et ad garrulitatem indecentem illorum.

This is why I arranged and ordered this speech in my own way for you boys. I know, of course, that boys frequently say playful words to one another rather than words that are honourable or wise. For their age always draws them to their unreasonable talk and frequent joking and improper chattering.

Indeed, although we should pay attention to Bata when he warns us not to read all of the Colloquies in the same spirit, we also cannot assume that his statement of purpose here accurately describes his entire project. Many of the possible infractions Bata depicts in his Colloquies seem much too serious to be adequately described as jokes. Another way of treating this problem of tone is to say that joking words are also deeply serious.

Indeed, humorous and violent speeches in the Colloquies function in analogous ways, allowing boys both to learn Latin and to manipulate and undercut authoritative Latin texts. In manuscripts from the twelfth century to the eighteenth, a personified Grammatica is pictured carrying a scourge to strike the students seated around her.

Although Grammatica also has milder incarnations, sometimes portrayed as mother or gardener, the frequency with which she appears bearing a flagellum betrays the extent to which the ideas of grammar teacher, young boys, and harsh correction were clustered together. He was typically depicted holding a rod or bundle of branches to remind his pupils of his corrective power. The implied logic of learning goes like this: if boys make mistakes when speaking Latin, they must be whipped; the whipping helps them learn Latin correctly, thus reaching a point when their Latin is so perfect that their kind teacher no longer needs to whip them.

It may seem redundant to spell this out, since this is the rough logic of all pedagogical punishment. An action is when you say, aro I plough; uerbero I flog. Suffering is when you say: uerberor I am flogged; ligor I am bound.

Consent is when you say, amor I am loved; doceor I am taught. The effect of choosing weorc, for example, to describe the active function of verbs is to colour our imagination of what can be said with those verbs. These examples render the concept vividly clear to the reader, and by their nature are likelier to remain in his memory than more benign verbs. His most vivid example, verbero, is not original. While amor and doceor are intended to contrast with the previous verbs, they become at the same time conceptually linked to them: being loved and taught may feel quite different from being flogged or bound, but they are tied to them in this knot of cultivation and domination.

A close look at the mechanics of how Bata constructs his schoolbook reveals that darker elements in the Colloquies are present by design. Bata uses this technique with lists of nouns as well, frequently having the boys declare that they lack the vocabulary items to be learned rather than saying that they own or use them.

This last instance in particular reveals how Bata elaborates a negative, emotionally charged situation out of simple vocabulary exercises. It is an example in nuce of the close relationship between linguistic pedagogy and dramatic action in the Colloquies. While Bata does not use this technique everywhere, he does employ it often enough for it to become a recognisable pattern.

Noting this pattern gives us an indication as to how Bata composes, and how we might read him accordingly. He attempts to make his dialogues more interesting, and the presentation of long lists of words more engaging, by introducing some variation in the sentences. This is easily done by having the boys claim they are unable to do things, or that they lack certain items.

The resulting dialogues are tense and dramatic, and it makes sense to elaborate the scenes with even more vivid images, as in the case of the boy who owns only blood-stained trousers. The Colloquies are seductively realistic, inviting us to think of them as a transparent window into the daily life of an eleventh-century Anglo-Saxon monastery.

This practice is observable in the way he recycles material from this oddly affectionate scene in the Retractata: Audi, pistor uel coce. Da mihi cibum meum ex cella tua, et ueni; sede cito iuxta me, ut simul manducemus et bibamus. O brother! Bene sit tibi. Non audeo sedere tecum, nec mea humanitas est, sed uolo stare hic ante te et manducare et bibere humiliter et sobrie, et tibi et sociis tuis et fratribus et hospitibus propinare libenter, si mihi precipis.

May it go well with you. Bata subsequently exacerbates the conflict of wills in this scene by having the over-friendly older monk bully the polite youngster into eating and drinking to excess, until the boy has to beg for respite, claiming his stomach is weak and will not take any more. Bata gives the second, and more outrageous, part of this selection from the Retractata, the request for a kiss, to an older monk, and has him ask it of a younger monk or oblate: Osculare me antequam exeam, et ora pro me, et memoriam habe meam in tuis sanctis orationibus, et ego uolo memor esse tui, per Deum.

Non audeo osculari te, frater. We are now well in the realm of sexually inappropriate behaviour, at least in light of reformed monastic customs. The Regularis concordia c. Instead let them love with charitable affection in their hearts, without flattering words, reverently and with great caution.

In the following example of a reworking from the Retractata, the boy is not spared. In Colloquy 7 of the Retractata, a monk asks another to accompany him: O frater, ueni, et perge mecum ad meam necessitatem. Non ibo, frater, hac uice, quoniam aliud opus occupat me. Audi, amice, noli stare inter me et lucem, sed sta superius.

Faciam libenter. The passage follows a series of disparate lines which do not make sense read together, and indeed, the second interchange I quote here seems to be separate from the first. Domne, non audeo uadere sine licentia magistri mei tecum. Mentiris certe! Non mentior, crede mihi. Ego rogare eum uolo modo. Domne frater, licet huic puero pergere mecum ad necessitatem meam? Licet bene, karissime amice. Brother, sir, is this boy allowed to go with me to my necessity? He may indeed, dearest friend.

In the first line, Bata has made several subtle alterations that nevertheless change the atmosphere and implications of the dialogue. This is no longer just a scene in which a brother asks his equal for a favour. It is now an inappropriate request by an older man to a young monk to help him at the toilet. Although all members of a monastic monastery were typically under supervision,54 special care was taken to preserve the purity of children from the dangers of masturbation, sexual relations, or abuse by elders.

But as the Rule instructs, each boy should remain under the constant supervision of his teacher. Nor should the teacher himself have the liberty to go away with any single boy without a third nearby as a witness. In the next Colloquy, perhaps since permission was already granted, another request for bathroom help is more readily attended to: O puer bone, ueni, et perge mecum in latrinam propter necessitatem meam.

Eo, domine. Audi, amice; noli stare sic inter me et lucem, sed sta superius paululum … Deo gratias, non sum cecus nec ebrius nimis. Just in case the imagery implied is not sufficiently vivid, Bata has incorporated the material following the original exchange in the Retractata into the scene at the latrine itself.

The man urinating asks another perhaps the boy himself to leave him more light, and then thanks God for not being too blind or drunk to manage the task. These examples should make it clear that, whatever questionable material may have already been present in the Retractata, Bata purposefully recycles into something profoundly disquieting. Indeed, the master in Colloquy 9 quite happily agrees to let the boy attend to the older monk in the latrine, and in instructing him in detail how to serve him, commands an even greater degree of contact between the boy and the older monk 98— The picture that emerges is of a situation in which the older monks, who ought to maintain the purity of the oblates, sometimes undermine it.

One implication is that it is the boys themselves who are ultimately responsible for monitoring their own behaviour and avoiding immoral activity, perhaps having learned to do so through proper discipline and education. On the other hand, the fact that they are only moderately successful at doing so suggests the limited effectiveness of discipline and upbringing, especially when the masters of the Colloquies regularly neglect to watch over their charges.

What Bata is investigating is the question of the proper balance between monastic custody custodia and discipline disciplina in enforcing behaviour and maintaining the purity of child oblates. As Jones has remarked, custody is almost completely absent in the Colloquies, while discipline is unceasing. While the abbot was responsible for the discipline of the community, it was the magister who generally fulfilled this disciplinary role for the oblates.

Although whipping was a given, many monastic histories and lives feature boys who are excessively punished, suggesting that its disproportionate use was also a source of concern. Although Bata in no place argues explicitly against corporal punishment in either his own voice or that of a representative master, his treatment of it embodies this paradox: he embraces the disciplinary prospect of violence, but also recognises its negative psychological effects on the child.

Not only is performance notoriously ephemeral, but it often remains difficult to imagine its existence in a period with no recognisable theatre. The Anglo-Saxon contribution to European drama has, in the eyes of scholars, generally been confined to tenth-century English liturgical practice, particularly to the Visitatio Sepulchri or Quem quaeritis of the Regularis concordia. Because they are educational texts, and deceptively realistic ones at that, school colloquies have contributed little to written histories of drama.

The Colloquies combine imagined scenarios with the kind of scripted everyday practices described by Ervin Goffman. Goffman, much like the late twentieth-century performance art movements that have shaped contemporary performance theory, eliminated the stage and with it the clear demarcation between performer and audience. A boy memorising and repeating his lines would not have been representing a wholly fictional character, nor would he have, strictly speaking, been performing his own identity.

The scenes of the Colloquies are imagined, but the boys acting them out would have performed real possibilities of themselves. While the notion of performance in the medieval classroom is still taking hold, the use of drama in modern pedagogy is widespread. Although there are important differences between the educational use of drama in the medieval period and today, contemporary research into the didactic power of performance can give us some indications of why and how it may have worked a thousand years ago.

To begin with, a number of scholars have noted that drama and enactment aid the memories of spectators and performers. Beginning with the question of how actors memorise lengthy texts verbatim, the Noices have carried out a series of memory studies and experiments with professional actors, college students, senior citizens, and with the mnemonist Harry Lorrayne.

They have found that a trained actor will focus on reading the text carefully and involve herself emotionally with a character, and that perfect memorisation of the lines occurs as a side effect of this deep interaction with playtext and character.

As I have already noted, Porter has argued convincingly that the Colloquies are a matrix out of which students could shape their own conversations. Second, modern educators generally prize, and use drama to inculcate, a different set of values than those of medieval monastic teachers for example, independence instead of obedience. Some, like Brian Edmiston, do argue that play-acting unethical scenes can benefit children, but researchers of early childhood education tend to focus on uncontroversial themes.

They also note the broader pedagogical implications of drama used to teach language. A number of analyses take up the ethical implications of pedagogical drama in general. Besides the potent dialogue, repetition, and memorisation bound up with drama, the thinkers surveyed by Levy also held that drama held up virtue to be emulated, ridiculed vice, and influenced the inner person through his outer actions.

This characteristic of theatre as an area where moral problems are posed, without necessarily being resolved, is a focus shared by a number of scholars today. Which perspectives did the dialogue form open for them? The Violent Logic of Discipline A reader encountering the Colloquies for the first time is likely to get the impression that violence is omnipresent in this fictional monastery, but in fact, only Colloquy 28 stages a disciplinary action, the beating of the oblate I discussed at the beginning of this chapter.

What gives the impression of pervasive violence is the fact that the boys in the dialogues repeatedly discuss the threat of being punished by their teachers. This process begins early on in Colloquy 3, which starts with a threat from the master, who enjoins his students to save their hides by memorising what they have learned the previous day. The teacher then seems to leave the room. The implication is that the master is just outside, ready to whip anyone who dares to leave the room.

This effect is further elaborated in Colloquy 5, which begins with the children on their own. If he should come near, then warn us right away. Cauete uos, et cauti estote, et accipite cito libros uestros, et legite et cantate antequam perueniat huc, ne nos otiosos aut iocantes, cum uenerit, inueniat. Caueo uos. Ecce, post hostium stat modo, et auscultat si legentes aut cantantes aliquid erimus, et ecce modo adest.

My italics. Beware, and be careful, and grab your books quickly, and read and sing before he comes here, lest he find us idle or kidding around when comes. The effect is tense, gradual, cinematic, and climactic, building up to an almost physical sense of apprehension even in the silent reader. The use of the adverbs cito, modo, statim, nunc in both passages adds to the sense of immediacy.

The young boys who learn this text are being taught to be selfpolicing, to imagine an authority figure who, like God, is always potentially watching, always standing right behind the door, always just about to open it and discover their slothfulness.

The potential presence of an angry magister causes the boys to take an inventory of their own activities, to take on the role of the disciplinarian in his absence. That is, although the dynamic of imagined punishment and subsequent self-correction I am describing here seems self-evident to the modern reader schooled in panopticons and their power to turn prisoners into the agents of their own subjugation,88 in the monastic context the prescribed custody has to have been neglected in order for this disciplinary mechanism to be activated.

This repeated process of imagining punishment has a psycholinguistic effect as well as a behavioural one. The boys learning the rudiments of Latin through this dialogue literally learn how to express fear in their new language. Moreover, not only do they learn the proper vocabulary words such as the forms of caveo to use when warning and worrying, but they learn to bind the other common parts of speech used in this exchange to a feeling of apprehension. The student memorising Colloquy 5 remembers adverbs such as cito and statim all the better for having associated them with the powerful emotions induced by a frightening authority figure, and The Violent Logic of Discipline 83 at some level, the language itself takes on a residue of these feelings.

The fear which fixes Latin in the memory of the young learner is imprinted on his memory, quietly but indelibly bound up with the nature of Latin itself. His students would have gone beyond the already active processes of analysis and memorisation of texts we associate with medieval grammatical study: they would have embodied the roles set out by these texts. This kind of role-playing has a parallel in the medieval recitation or chanting of the Psalter, itself one of the central texts of early Latin pedagogy in the middle ages.

While the boys learning these colloquies practise being the frightened objects of an ever-present disciplinary gaze, they also begin to learn a language with which to police one another. In Colloquy 3, the boy who asks to borrow a book is met with an unfriendly response.

His classmate refuses to lend him the book, and ascribes to him a catalogue of boyish misbehaviours: Quare uoluisti sic perdere tuum librum? Tota die huc et illuc discurris uagando, nihil boni faciens, nec uis nobiscum legere, nec sponte discere, nec uoluntarie cantare, nec scribere in tabula, nec in scedula nec in ullo pergameno nec in nulla quaternione. You run about all day, wandering here and there, doing nothing good. As language pedagogy, this passage is masterful.

Bata manages to work in the verbs for classroom activities legere, discere, cantare, scribere and the nouns for writing tools tabula, scedula, pergamenum, quaternio , and he keeps the speech exciting by putting them all in negative grammatical structures. The effect is that the boys practising this speech are not only acting as students, but already taking on the role of the masters they may some day become.

In other words, the boys themselves have a custodial function in the absence of the teacher. Sit in your seats and read. In this passage, the ultimate object of study is described as the ability to teach future students in turn.

However, the equivalence established between docet and ammonet suggests that the material to be learned is not confined to the skills of reading and writing, or even to standards of proper behaviour and belief. The boys are not only being taught what to teach, but to wield power and authority over their future students, in other words, how to be a teacher.

In this light, it may be worth thinking a little further about the use of the Colloquies in the classroom, especially considering the difference in structure between them and other medieval master—student dialogues. The structure of a typical dialogue of alternating questions and answers between two interlocutors, one clearly given the status of teacher and the other that of student, suggests that if the dialogue was ever performed in a classroom, teacher and student acted out the roles appropriate to them.

This may not have even been the case, and even a typical school dialogue could play with notions of authority and power. They are multivocal, and many conversations take place between boys alone. While we cannot know how Bata apportioned roles to his students, the freeform structure of the dialogues suggests that boys may have taken on the roles of masters or older boys, or even that the master may have chosen at some point to speak in the voice of a student.

Although the repeated theme of harsh discipline evokes a rigid power structure, the dialogues embody a dynamic process of gaining and practising authority over oneself and others. Thus examined, the Colloquies seem to offer a neat and logical prescription for the education of oblate boys into monks and teachers. Even the focus on corporal punishment as opposed to other, non-violent forms of discipline makes sense when the application of pain is considered as a technique of socialisation into a group.

Alan Morinis argues that the pain inflicted during initiatory rites marks on the body of the young man the limitations he will have to accept to participate in the group. He will have a relationship to the past through the books he has learned to read and committed to memory, and a relationship to the future through the students he will come to teach. Aut quis scripsit scripturam hanc? Or, who wrote this writing? Or, who wrote this page, or this line, or this alphabet, or these words, or these letters?

The other replies that the scribe in question is now old and can no longer write because of his old age and failed vision. A third monk adds: Dignus est certe, ut bene uiuat. Multum bonum sue manus habent factum. Multos iuuenes, ut nostri fratres dicunt, pueros et adholescentulos, quando fortis in corpore suo fuit, instruendo docuit ad scribendum, et aliqui ex ipsis boni scriptores adhuc uiuunt, aliqui mortui sunt, et monasterii istius scriptores sunt modo, et sepe multos scribunt libros, et uendunt eos, et multum sibi lucrum inde adipiscuntur.

His hands have done much good. When his body was stronger, he taught many youths, boys, and young men to write, as our brothers tell it. Some of those good writers are still living, some are dead. They are now the scribes of this monastery, and they often write many books, sell them, and gain much profit from it.

This old scribe has not only become a figure of consequence because of the books he has created, books which will cause others to speak of him even after his death, but by teaching his craft to others he has become the scribal grandfather of many other manuscripts. He is, we may take it, a model for the young boys to emulate, and his legacy a reason to submit to and embody the constant discipline of the classroom.

The Violent Logic of Discipline 87 In a further move at the end of the Colloquies, Bata suggests that acting out the roles of a punished, tormented man and of an admonishing teacher prepares the boys for the most important performance, a life modelled after Christ.

The final Colloquy of the collection takes the form of a sermon from the master, the one place where the speaking teacher invites us to identify him with Bata. He is presenting Christ in one of his traditional roles of teacher, but he is a teacher to be obeyed precisely because of his suffering: Audite ipsum Christum. Timete; facite quod precipit, ne contempnatis mandata ipsius, quia pro omnibus incarnatus, pannis circumdatus est, esuriuit, sitiuit, lassus ad puteum sedit, fatigatus in naue dormiuit, contumelias et obprobria a Iudeis audiuit, et sputa eorum non abegit, alapas in faciem accepit, in ligno sancte crucis pependit, animam effudit.

Fear him. Do what he instructs, do not disdain his commands, for he was made into flesh for all, he was enveloped with rags, he hungered, he thirsted, he sat weary at the well, he slept tired in the ship, he listened to the insults and abuses of the Jews, and he did not remove their spit, he received blows on his face, he hung on the wood of the holy cross, he poured out his soul.

Christ, the teacher who must be obeyed, has withstood these stoically; the oblates are invited to do the same, and to enjoy the corresponding heavenly rewards. David Capes reads the Gospels in the context of ancient laudatory biography, which offered up the lives of good men as patterns to be imitated. He notes especially the way Paul locates authority, and by implication, exemplarity, in the cross, in weakness, and in human suffering. This cannot be the whole story, however.

If the threat of corporal punishment is justified by the bright academic career it opens to oblates and by the opportunity it provides to engage in an imitatio Christi, it is nevertheless a powerful, potentially explosive force to introduce into the monastic community. In teaching them how violent language can be used to modify their own behaviour and to influence the behaviour of others for positive ends, the magister who whips is also teaching his students that violence should be used.

I would argue that Bata recognises this at some level, and in Colloquy 25 he shows how the system of punishment and mutual correction falls apart. The colloquy begins with one monk of indeterminate age perhaps an older student upbraiding a young boy for a variety of bad behaviours: arriving late for reading or work, being lazy, and always thinking evil.

His attack seems to follow the model of earlier arguments in which boys took on the disciplinary roles of absent teachers. However, in this case, his anger spirals out of control. When the accused defends himself, the argument degenerates into an impressively creative and varied list of vile insults, most of them faecally themed.

On the other hand, the scene also shows how readily the practice of mutual discipline can become aggressive and hateful. This paradox is related to another dilemma implied by the sermon on Christ quoted above: in order for Christ to suffer spits, insults, and blows, there have to be persecutors to deliver them. In staging this brief moment of frustration, Bata explicitly recognises the pedagogical limitations of corporal punishment. While the monk speaking the line means to harry and accuse the oblate, the multiplicity of interpretations called forth by classroom performance suggests another reading, one in which the monk reveals himself to be misguided in his use of threats and whips.

By constructing his Latin textbook to be at once threatening and funny, serious and ludic, he offers his students the opportunity to perform both discipline and dissent. This is, at first glance, not surprising. After all, what else is learning if not building up a store of memories? The texts treated in this book use memory in different ways and to different ends, however.

Memory is also central to the Old English poem Andreas, but in a significantly different form than in the other two texts. Andreas understands learning as a dynamic process of recollection, forgetting, and remembering again.

In the case of Andreas, this emotion is a sense of terrifying wonder that prompts the learner to reflect on what he already knows. Andreas does not rank among the greatest hits of Anglo-Saxon literature. A hagiographic adventure story told in the heroic vocabulary of Old English verse, it features a protagonist who is neither hero nor saint. Its landscape is littered with curious, unlikely creatures, including a stone angel that speaks and walks and an ancient column that releases a deadly flood.

Although it is a poem deeply concerned with teaching and conversion, most of the pedagogy it depicts fails, and the ultimate conversion of heathens is performed not through teaching but by an act of genocide. Worse, it is a deeply anti-Judaic work, repeatedly depicting Jews as blind 90 Introduction 91 unbelievers, little better than savage cannibals. Finally, Andreas is notorious for its awkward, even ungrammatical, appropriation of phrases and images from other Old English poems.

If anything can be said for Andreas, it is that it rewards typological and allegorical criticism, an approach that succeeds in making a nice Christian poem out of this wayward text. In this chapter I argue that Andreas, despite its quirkiness and errors and unruly hero, makes sense. In fact, the sense of Andreas is to be found precisely in what does not fit, from the shape of the larger story right down to individual half lines and single words.

Andreas uses a scene of teaching between Christ and the apostle Andrew to model its relationship to its readers, whom it educates through wonder, recollection, and reflection. The product of a literary culture shaped by aenigma and dialogue, Andreas uses embedded riddles to spur its readers to think about objects and words from the past, to meditate on what they already know, and to consider whether they truly understand it or not.

As a result, Andreas is filled with wondrous things that prompt contemplation, but it offers no pleasant, purely aesthetic wonder; rather, it is a wonder that discomfits, frightens, and instructs. Introduction The apocryphal adventures of Andrew and Matthew are transmitted in a number of Greek and Latin recensions as well as in two Old English prose versions.

Most scholars, however, assume Andreas is based on a now-lost Latin translation. Its 92 Recollection: Andreas locals have the unpleasant habit of capturing strangers, putting out their eyes, giving them a poisonous drink that will damage their wits and render them beastlike, and after letting them marinate for a while, making them into dinner.

When Christ commands Andrew to travel to Mermedonia and save Matthew from the cannibals, Andrew refuses, claiming the task is impossible. Christ rebukes him, and the next day a mysterious boat appears on the seashore ready to convey the apostle and his men to Mermedonia. The helmsman teaches Andrew by having him teach his disciples in turn. In the most unusual miracle Andrew recalls, Jesus addresses an angel carved into the wall of the Jewish temple in the presence of recalcitrant rabbis, commanding it to leave its place and announce his divine lineage to everyone present.

It heads to a grave in Mambre where Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are buried, awakens them from their deathly sleep, and charges them to proclaim the glory of god to the people. The people are, naturally, terrified. As a direct witness of the wonders Jesus performed in his lifetime, he should have understood that Christ could bring him to Mermedonia in time to save Matthew.

Scholars have noted how ironic it is that Andrew lectures Christ without recognising him,6 but one might excuse him for being fooled by a god in disguise. The problem, rather, is that the faith he learned as a disciple of Christ is weak.

While the first part of Andreas is concerned with confusion and mistaken identities, the second part promises recognition and clarity. After a saintly catnap, Andrew and his men awake on the Mermedonian shore, where he realises shamefully that he had been ferried by Christ himself. Christ appears in the form of a boy and instructs Andrew to go into the city and suffer in imitation of him. He tells the apostle that he will convert the Mermedonians by following his own example of heroic endurance.

Once in the city, Andrew liberates Matthew and the other prisoners, but the Mermedonians, under the influence of the devil, capture Andrew and torture him. Instead, Andrew is put back in prison, where he commands a column to let forth a flood that drowns most of the Mermedonians.

This finally seems to impress the cannibals, and they acknowledge the might of God. Andrew brings a number of young people back to life, baptises the Mermedonians, and sets a bishop named Platan over them. Still, Andrew remains an unwilling teacher, and is about to set sail when Christ appears to him again, warning him that he cannot simply abandon the new converts without properly teaching them the faith. Already in the nineteenth century, scholars noticed the overlap between Andreas, Beowulf, and the poems of Cynewulf, and attempted to establish whether the cause was common authorship or borrowing.

If it seemed logical and natural for the Beowulf poet to say he had never heard of a boat more splendidly laden with treasure when describing the lushly outfitted burial ship of Scyld Scefing, it was obviously nonsensical for the Andreas poet to make nearly the same hyperbolic statement about the boat steered by Christ: his passenger, Andrew, had, after all, just explained that he had no money for the fare.

In several articles, Anita Riedinger strengthens our understanding of the Andreas—Beowulf connection by comparing their shared formulas and formulaic sets to the corpus of Old English poetry. She argues that the poems share many formulas that do not appear elsewhere in the poetic corpus, that Andreas borrowed from Beowulf, and that the pattern of borrowing — adapting heavily from certain sections of Beowulf while ignoring others — suggests a poet working with a written version of the earlier epic.

Using concordance software to isolate significant parallels between the poems, that is, unique parallels between poems and within Andreas featuring verbatim repetition, Powell comes to several conclusions. The question remaining is how to interpret them. Inspired by Thomas D. Teaching in Andreas As we might expect from a hagiography, Andreas is deeply interested in the teaching of Christian faith.

What we might not expect is how frequently teaching fails. Over the course of its many pedagogical moments, the poem introduces several teaching techniques, only to show them founder. When 96 Recollection: Andreas God commands him to travel to Mermedonia, Andrew becomes stunningly ignorant, claiming that an angel might know the way to that land, but he does not.

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Wir verwenden die Begriffe Archetyp und Seele in dem Bewusstsein, Jahrtausende alte Vorstellungen wieder aufzugreifen und sie mit neuem Sinn fllen zu wollen. Archetyp meint in der ursprnglichen griechischen Wortbedeutung etwa so viel wie das von Anfang Gepre, und genau davon ist in diesem Buch die Rede.

Nach den Informationen unserer kausalen Quelle geht die Entscheidung der Seele fr ihr Seelenmuster der Zeugung voraus. Wir mchten in diesem Zusammenhang betonen, dass es sich bei der Archetypen-Lehre nicht um ein Glaubenssystem und auch nicht um eine esoterische Weltanschauung handelt.

Vielmehr bietet sie Informationen, die berprfbar sind und ganz konkreten Nutzen fr den Einzelnen haben knnen, ganz gleich, welcher Kultur er entstammt oder auf welche religise Prng er zurckblickt. Die erst prse, inhaltlich und formal schlssige Siebenerstruktur dieses Systems erlaubt neuartige Einblicke in eine Ordnung der seelischen Welten.

Hier kann eine nichtmenschliche Informationsquelle, die transzendente Bereiche berschaut, ihre besondere Hilfestellung geben. Archetypen und individuelle Matrix bieten ein hochdifferenziertes Modell. Mit ihren millionenfachen Kombinationsmglichkeiten beschreibt es die absolute Einmaligkeit und Einzigartigkeit eines jeden Menschen - eben seine seelische Identit Das persnliche Seelenmuster, vergleichbar seinem biologischen Gegenstck, dem genetischen Fingerabdruck, enth wie ein Samenkorn das Abbild der gesamten Entfaltungsmglichkeiten - in sich begrenzt, aber doch von immenser Strahlkraft.

Seelenfamilie und Seelenwege knnen als ergende Faktoren bercksichtigt werden. Die Quelle ist uns durch ihr Wissen und ihre Weisheit ein liebevoller Lehrer und Wegbegleiter geworden. Wir danken allen, die sich mit der neuen Lehre von der menschlichen Seele beschigt haben und von denen wir lernen durften, wie sie in die gelebte Wirklichkeit umzusetzen ist. Seele galt bislang als etwas Nebulses, Unfassbares. Dies geschieht in aller Regel durch die treibenden Kre des Unbewussten und erfllt so ganz von selbst seine Funktionen.

Wenn ihr Menschen jedoch bewussten Zugang zu eurem Seelenmuster, zu den Archetypen eurer persnlichen Matrix, finden knnt, erffnen sich euch Pforten zu eurem Inneren, die sonst verschlossen bleiben mssen. Eine solch mentale und emotionale Einsicht in euer Wesen schenkt eine berwigende Flle von Antworten auf die eine gro Frage, die jeden bewegt, der sich aufmacht, einen spirituellen Weg zu gehen. Es ist die Frage nach der Selbsterkenntnis, die Frage: Wer bin ich?

Wichtig ist dabei, zu begreifen, dass das Seelenmuster sich grundslich von psychischen Mustern unterscheidet, obgleich es eine Reihe von Berhrungspunkten gibt. Denn solange ihr im Krper seid, wird sich Seele vorwiegend ber Psyche manifestieren. Die Matrix, bestehend aus einer spezifischen Kombination von Archetypen, beschreibt euren Kern, das Wesentliche, das Eigentliche; sie zeigt das, was ihr mitbringt, und das, was euch ausmacht.

Sie ist das Ergebnis einer Entscheidung der Seele, und deshalb birgt sie in sich eine Sinnhaftigkeit, die sich von der Bedeutung psychischer Muster grundlegend unterscheidet. Diese Matrix enth euer gesamtes, gereinigtes Potenzial und die Mglichkeiten eurer seelischen Entfaltung in einem einzelnen Leben, in einem bestimmten existenziellen Kontext.

Sie ist auch ein Abbild eurer Grundenergie. Das psychische Muster hingegen ist bereits Resultat von Erlebtem und Gelebtem. Es setzt sich zusammen aus den Ereignissen und ihrer Verarbeitung, aus den Traumata, Freuden und Prngen. Es produziert Reaktionen und Verhaltensweisen. Das psychische Muster grenzt euch ein, wend das seelische Muster euch das Potenzial eures weitesten Radius aufzeigt.

Obschon das Seelenmuster sich, solange eure Seele sich in einem menschlichen Krper befindet, auch psychisch manifestieren muss, so soll doch darauf hingewiesen werden, dass es nicht in gleicher Weise wie die beschreibbaren Reaktionen der Psyche eine Zwangsligkeit und Geschichte aufweist, sondern einen Freiraum beschreibt, innerhalb dessen ihr euch entfalten knnt und der euch eine Dimension zur Verfgung stellt, in der ihr wirklich ihr selbst sein knnt, statt euch als Produkt der Verhnisse zu empfinden.

Alle Konstanten und Variablen der Matrix gestalten diesen Freiraum durch eine Polarisierung, die jedoch nicht linear, sondern vieldimensional vorzustellen ist. Eure Freiheit besteht darin, euch zwischen diesen Polen zu bewegen, eure Bewusstheit und Erkenntnisfgkeit einzusetzen, um eure Position in diesem Raum jeweils zu lokalisieren, zu werten und zu verstehen. Die Gewissheit, dass euch unbedingt und unablig der gesamte riesenhafte und hochdifferenzierte vieldimensionale Raum zwischen den Polen von Liebe und Angst zur Verfgung steht, sei euch Trost und Richtlinie zugleich.

Euer Wunsch zu wachsen, euer Wille, euch zu entwickeln, eure Sehnsucht, auf dem Pfad voranzuschreiten, entwirft eine Orientierungskarte, mit Hilfe derer ihr euch in diesem Raum zurechtfinden knnt. Die Matrix ist ein Modell eurer inneren Welt. Diese Welt ist eine andere, als es die psychischen und physischen Welten sind, und doch ist sie keine Gegenwelt. Alle drei Dimensionen stehen miteinander in Verbindung.

Sie arbeiten zusammen und knnen miteinander in Einklang gebracht werden. Der Unterschied besteht darin, dass die seelische Dimension eures Daseins gestaltet wurde, als ihr krperlos wart in den zeitlosen Zeiten und raumlosen Ren zwischen den Leben; die psychische Dimension bezieht sich hingegen auf das Werden eurer Persnlichkeit innerhalb der eingekrperten Existenz. Deshalb ist das Seelenmuster von mehr Liebe und tieferer Sinnhaftigkeit gepr als das psychische Muster.

Selbst wenn ihr alle Aspekte eures physischen und psychischen Daseins beschrieben het, wrde euch doch die dritte Dimension eurer Existenz verhllt bleiben: die Bedingungen und Voraussetzungen eurer seelischen Identit einer Identit die alle Leben im Krper umspannt und jenseits aller Krperlichkeit ihre Gltigkeit hat. Unser Anliegen ist es, euch diese dritte Dimension, die unerlliche, unabweisbare Realiteures Seelenmusters, nrzubringen und euch damit die Mglichkeit einer tieferen, intimeren Beziehung zu eurer Seele zu erffnen.

Jedes Wort, das wir zu den einzelnen Bausteinen der Matrix, den Archetypen, bermittelt haben, dient diesem Anliegen. Wenn ihr nun das, was wir euch zur Verfgung gestellt haben, fr euch nutzen mchtet, bieten sich drei Vorgehensweisen an: Die erste, schnellste Mglichkeit, euer Seelenmuster zu erkennen, besteht darin, nach der Lektre ein kompetentes, mit dieser Struktur vertrautes Medium danach zu befragen und sich anschliend mit den entsprechenden Durchgaben zu befassen.

Dieser Vorgang bewirkt ein pltzliches Freisetzen neuer Erkenntnisse, eine Nachdenklichkeit, oft auch einen Widerwillen und eine Abwehr, die allesamt fruchtbar sind und sich mit den alten Gewohnheiten der Psyche verbinden, die ihrerseits Rckwirkungen auf die bewusste Verankerung im Seelenmuster hervorbringen.

Wenn ihr also euer Seelenmuster auf diese Weise erfahrt, knnt ihr einerseits davon ausgehen, dass wahrscheinlich kein Irrtum vorliegt. Andererseits seid ihr in der Verarbeitung, in der Betrachtung eures seelischen Wachstumsprogramms sehr auf euch selbst gestellt. Die zweite Empfehlung, die wir aussprechen knnen, besteht darin, die Berhrung mit dem eigenen Seelenmuster als Angebot fr einen aufrichtigen, innigen Kontakt mit den Schichten des eigenen Inneren zu betrachten.

Und wie ihr wisst, enthllt sich dieses Selbst leichter, schneller und deutlicher, wenn ihr mit anderen Menschen, die sich selbst ebenso neugierig und ehrlich selbst erfahren wollen wie ihr, in Verbindung steht. Unsere Empfehlung richtet sich also darauf, dass ihr dieses Buch nicht allein, sondern gemeinsam mit anderen lest oder durcharbeitet, mit Menschen, die euch nahestehen oder die ein vergleichbares Interesse an ihrer seelischen Struktur zeigen, so dass ihr nicht nur auf eigene Vermutungen, auf hilflose Spekulationen und Wunschprojektionen angewiesen seid.

Dieser Vorgang der gemeinsamen grndlichen Erforschung eurer seelischen Identitwird einige Zeit in Anspruch nehmen, doch wird diese Zeit zu den fruchtbarsten Perioden eures Lebens gehren. Vieles werdet ihr zuerst an anderen erkennen knnen, und andere werden bestimmte Merkmale an euch identifizieren.

Sodann reift auch in euch die Erkenntnis. Die intensive Kommunikation, die aufmerksame Beobachtung, die neuartige Offenheit, die sich aus einer gemeinsamen Erforschung der einzelnen Matrixelemente entwickeln und die die Angehrigen einer Familie, die Mitglieder eines Freundeskreises oder die Teilnehmer an einer Matrixforschungsgruppe miteinander in Kontakt bringen, sind von unschbarem Wert und geeignet, das Leben mit einem neuen Leuchten zu erfllen. Wer drittens geneigt ist, sich auf ein Abenteuer einzulassen - in der Hoffnung, fr die Unwamkeiten und Risiken symbolischer Wahrheitsfindung gut gerstet zu sein -, kann gegebenenfalls Pendel oder Tarotkarten einsetzen.

Jedoch muss man zugleich ber eine gefestigte Kenntnis der eigenen Persnlichkeit verfgen, um mit Hilfe dieser Techniken Auskunft ber Seelenrolle, Angstmerkmal, Entwicklungsziel und andere Aspekte der eigenen Matrix zu erhalten. Dabei sollte sehr sorgfig darauf geachtet werden, dass nicht der Wunsch nach Selbstidealisierung oder die Sehnsucht nach einer letztgltigen Bestgung persnlicher Wnsche die Wahrnehmung ft. Wir mchten diese drei Mglichkeiten, die eigene Matrix zu ermitteln, mit drei Zugen zum Hochgebirge vergleichen.

Der erste Weg ist breit und bequem, er breitet sich vor euch aus wie eine Autostra, und ihr geht ihn nicht aus eigener Kraft, kommt aber ohne Weiteres zum Ziel, indem ihr euch von geeigneter Seite untersttzen lasst. Die breite Stra wird von vielen befahren, es herrscht reger Verkehr, doch werden die Schnheiten der Landschaft und die Besteigung des Berges euch nicht sehr intensiv berhren.

Oben angekommen, ist es an euch zu entscheiden, ob ihr sogleich wieder abreisen wollt, nachdem ihr einen kurzen Blick auf das Panorama geworfen und ein paar Zge aus der Zigarette genossen habt. Wenn ihr jedoch auf dem Gipfel Rast macht und euch mit dem Dortsein befasst, knnt ihr euch auf berraschende, beglckende, berwigende Erlebnisse mit euch selbst freuen. Der Aufenthalt dort oben wird euch zu einem unvergesslichen Erlebnis werden.

Ihr werdet diesen Ort liebgewinnen und versuchen, sooft, wie es euch mglich ist, zu ihm zurckzukehren. Der zweite Zugang gleicht einem bewten Wanderweg, der seit Jahrhunderten begangen wurde und von vielen darum bemhten Menschen gut erkennbar markiert wurde. Ihr werdet diesen Weg nicht allein gehen, doch ist euer Fortschreiten das Ergebnis eigener Bemhungen.

Niemand ft euch, niemand tr euch. Ihr werdet ins Schwitzen kommen, ihr werdet rasten mssen und euch auch lere Verschnaufpausen gestatten wollen. Und wenn ihr einmal auf dem Weg anhaltet, wird es immer etwas Wichtiges und Schnes zu sehen geben. Ihr werdet bei jedem Schritt und bei jeder Rast eine gewachsene, innige Beziehung zu dem Boden der Landschaft entwickeln, auf dem ihr steht, und zu der Landschaft, die euch umgibt. Einmal auf dem Gipfel angekommen, wird euch eine Befriedigung erfllen, eine Freude ber das Erreichte, eine Lust am Schauen, die sich nicht vergleichen lt mit der erraschung, die der Mensch empfand, der im Wagen hinauffuhr.

Das Erleben des Wanderers ist verankert in seinem geduldigen, langfristigen Bemhen, das die krperliche Erfahrung und Vererung mit einbezogen hat. Der dritte Weg gleicht einer geflichen Kletterpartie. Ihr msst euch mit Seil und Haken sichern. Es gibt Gefahren und Notsituationen, Anstrengungen und Erregungen, Absturzmglichkeiten und die Notwendigkeit vollkommener Konzentration. Ihr befindet euch an einer Steilwand und werdet euren Blick auf den nsten Halt richten.

Es bleibt kaum Mu fr eine Betrachtung der Landschaft und ihrer Schnheiten, doch die Herausforderung, der ihr euch stellt, indem ihr den steilsten Weg wt und immer nach Halt suchend eure Lust im Klettern findet und nicht im Sitzen auf dem Gipfel, ist unvergleichbar und besitzt ihre eigene Schnheit. Ihr richtet euren Ehrgeiz auf einen gefahrvollen Alleingang, und sogar wenn andere mit euch angeseilt sein sollten, muss doch jeder mit hchster Verantwortlichkeit auf sich selbst achten.

Wenn ihr dann heil angekommen seid, werdet ihr ber Erfahrungen mit euch selbst verfgen, die euch von den Reisenden auf anderen Wegen unterscheiden. Ihr wisst von Gefahren und den Mglichkeiten ihrer Bewigung, die den anderen fremd sind, ihr knnt von Abenteuern berichten, die sie erstaunen werden, doch wird euch auch deutlich sein, dass eure Neigung, die Erstrmung des Gipfels der Selbsterkenntnis mit gron Anstrengungen zu verbinden, nicht jedermanns Sache ist.

Stellt euch also euer ureigenes Seelenmuster wie ein Gele vor, das ihr gemeurer Eigenart, gemeuren Bedrfnissen und Wnschen und Mglichkeiten, in unterschiedlicher Weise erkunden und erfahren knnt: allein, mit einem Fhrer oder gemeinsam mit einer Gruppe von Gleichgesinnten, getragen, geleitet oder aus eigener Kraft, schneller oder langsamer, oberfllicher oder grndlicher.

Vergesst jedoch nicht ber allem eigenem Bemhen, dass ihr euch in einem Energiefeld bewegt und dass dieses Energiefeld in dem Ma wie ihr euch ihm aussetzt, seine eigentmliche Wirkung im Wechselspiel mit euch entfaltet. So wie ihr, je hher ihr im Gebirge steigt, vererten klimatischen Bedingungen unterworfen seid - frischerer Luft, unterschiedlichen Druckverhnissen, den Wirkungen eurer Bewegungen -, so entfaltet auch das Energiegefge der Matrix seine eigenen Kre.

Die Tatsache an sich, dass ihr dieses Gele erforscht, wird euch darin untersttzen, die Erfahrung zu vervollstigen. Klaus Hasselmann , Nobel Prize laureate in physics , delivered his lecture "The human footprint of climate change" on Klaus Hasselmann: "We've been warning against climate change for about 50 years or so" Nobel Prize. Caught entirely unawares by the call from Stockholm, Klaus Hasselmann 's surprise is evident in this brief interview with Adam Searches related to Hasselmann.

Nobel Laureate Hasselmann: "I thought I was dreaming". Nobel laureate Klaus Hasselmann is a pioneer of climate research. With the help of computational models, the physicist Feb 8, First of the 4-part lecture series on "Climate science born in Hamburg" by Prof. Hans von Storch: "The science of

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